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JMIR Human Factors

Making health care interventions and technologies usable, safe, and effective

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Journal Description

JMIR Human Factors (JHF) is a PubMed-indexed, peer-reviewed sister journal of JMIR, a leading open access eHealth journal  (Impact Factor 2016: 5.175).
JMIR Human Factors is a multidisciplinary journal with contributions from medical researchers, engineers, and social scientists.
JMIR Human Factors focuses on understanding how the behaviour and thinking of humans can influence and shape the design of health care interventions and technologies, and how the design can be evaluated and improved to make health care interventions and technologies usable, safe, and effective. JHF aspires to lead health care towards a culture of testing and safety by promoting and publishing reports rigorously evaluating the usability and human factors aspects in health care, as well as encouraging the development and debate on new methods in this emerging field. 
All articles are professionally copyedited and typeset, ready for indexing in PubMed/PubMed Central. Possible contributions include usability studies and heuristic evaluations, studies concerning ergonomics and error prevention, design studies for medical devices and healthcare systems/workflows, enhancing teamwork through Human Factors based teamwork training, measuring non-technical skills in staff like leadership, communication, situational awareness and teamwork, and healthcare policies and procedures to reduce errors and increase safety. Reviews, viewpoint papers and tutorials are as welcome as original research.

Editorial Board members are currently being recruited, please contact us if you are interested (jmir.editorial.office at gmail.com).

 
 
 
 

Recent Articles:

  • Source: US Air Force; Copyright: US Air Force (Wesley Farnsworth); URL: http://www.af.mil/News/Article-Display/Article/120965/training-gives-medics-confidence-prior-to-deployments/; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    The Impact of Visualization Dashboards on Quality of Care and Clinician Satisfaction: Integrative Literature Review

    Abstract:

    Background: Intensive Care Units (ICUs) in the United States admit more than 5.7 million people each year. The ICU level of care helps people with life-threatening illness or injuries and involves close, constant attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Delay between condition onset and implementation of necessary interventions can dramatically impact the prognosis of patients with life-threatening diagnoses. Evidence supports a connection between information overload and medical errors. A tool that improves display and retrieval of key clinical information has great potential to benefit patient outcomes. The purpose of this review is to synthesize research on the use of visualization dashboards in health care. Objective: The purpose of conducting this literature review is to synthesize previous research on the use of dashboards visualizing electronic health record information for health care providers. A review of the existing literature on this subject can be used to identify gaps in prior research and to inform further research efforts on this topic. Ultimately, this evidence can be used to guide the development, testing, and implementation of a new solution to optimize the visualization of clinical information, reduce clinician cognitive overload, and improve patient outcomes. Methods: Articles were included if they addressed the development, testing, implementation, or use of a visualization dashboard solution in a health care setting. An initial search was conducted of literature on dashboards only in the intensive care unit setting, but there were not many articles found that met the inclusion criteria. A secondary follow-up search was conducted to broaden the results to any health care setting. The initial and follow-up searches returned a total of 17 articles that were analyzed for this literature review. Results: Visualization dashboard solutions decrease time spent on data gathering, difficulty of data gathering process, cognitive load, time to task completion, errors, and improve situation awareness, compliance with evidence-based safety guidelines, usability, and navigation. Conclusions: Researchers can build on the findings, strengths, and limitations of the work identified in this literature review to bolster development, testing, and implementation of novel visualization dashboard solutions. Due to the relatively few studies conducted in this area, there is plenty of room for researchers to test their solutions and add significantly to the field of knowledge on this subject.

  • Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: Rob Nolan; URL: http://humanfactors.jmir.org/2018/2/e20/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    A Moderated e-Forum for Adults With Cardiovascular Disease: Usability Study

    Abstract:

    Background: Self-care behaviors are commonly prescribed to manage both cardiovascular disease and hypertension to reduce modifiable risk factors and improve quality of life. Nevertheless, long-term adherence to self-care recommendations for cardiac patients has been problematic. In cardiac patients, moderated online forums have been found to be particularly useful in supporting maintenance of heart-healthy diet and fewer hospital visits. As such, we developed the e-Forum, a Web-based moderated forum designed to promote continued user engagement and long-term self-care adherence. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the usability of the user interface for the newly designed e-Forum. In addition to overall user satisfaction, we obtained feedback from our target users on the key features of this newly developed interface. Methods: An iterative design tested the usability of the e-Forum. On the basis of the user feedback, adjustments were made to the design of our e-Forum, and these changes were then tested in the succeeding group. Participants were recruited from the Heart Function Clinic at the Peter Munk Cardiac Center, University Health Network. After consenting to participate in our study, patients were asked to complete a set of goal-oriented tasks and a feedback interview for the e-Forum. A content analysis of the transcripts from the set of goal-oriented tasks and feedback interviews identified several themes, including general feedback and comments regarding 3 key areas of the e-Forum: layout, navigation, and content. Results: Overall, 13 cardiac patients (aged 32-81 years) participated in 3 rounds of testing. Participants across all 3 rounds were highly satisfied with our e-Forum and indicated that they would find such a forum useful in managing their health. Expressions of overall satisfaction with the e-Forum and positive comments regarding layout increased between the initial and the final round. As improvements were made to the e-Forum based on participant feedback, potential barriers, negative comments related to the content, and the number of navigation errors decreased between rounds 1 and 3. Conclusions: We found evidence to support the usability of the user interface for our e-Forum. These results indicate that the e-Forum will likely be a successful tool to support an online community of cardiac patients in their efforts to sustain long-term lifestyle behavior change.

  • iREST portal and iREST app. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL: http://humanfactors.jmir.org/2018/2/e21/; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial + NoDerivatives (CC-BY-NC-ND).

    Development of a Just-in-Time Adaptive mHealth Intervention for Insomnia: Usability Study

    Abstract:

    Background: Healthy sleep is a fundamental component of physical and brain health. Insomnia, however, is a prevalent sleep disorder that compromises functioning, productivity, and health. Therefore, developing efficient treatment delivery methods for insomnia can have significant societal and personal health impacts. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) is the recommended first-line treatment of insomnia but access is currently limited for patients, since treatment must occur in specialty sleep clinics, which suffer from an insufficient number of trained clinicians. Smartphone-based interventions offer a promising means for improving the delivery of CBTI. Furthermore, novel features such as real-time monitoring and assessment, personalization, dynamic adaptations of the intervention, and context awareness can enhance treatment personalization and effectiveness, and reduce associated costs. Ultimately, this “Just in Time Adaptive Intervention” for insomnia—an intervention approach that is acceptable to patients and clinicians, and is based on mobile health (mHealth) platform and tools—can significantly improve patient access and clinician delivery of evidence-based insomnia treatments. Objective: This study aims to develop and assess the usability of a Just in Time Adaptive Intervention application platform called iREST (“interactive Resilience Enhancing Sleep Tactics”) for use in behavioral insomnia interventions. iREST can be used by both patients and clinicians. Methods: The development of iREST was based on the Iterative and Incremental Development software development model. Requirement analysis was based on the case study’s description, workflow and needs, clinician inputs, and a previously conducted BBTI military study/implementation of the Just in Time Adaptive Intervention architecture. To evaluate the usability of the iREST mHealth tool, a pilot usability study was conducted. Additionally, this study explores the feasibility of using an off-the-shelf wearable device to supplement the subjective assessment of patient sleep patterns. Results: The iREST app was developed from the mobile logical architecture of Just in Time Adaptive Intervention. It consists of a cross-platform smartphone app, a clinician portal, and secure 2-way communications platform between the app and the portal. The usability study comprised 19 Active Duty Service Members and Veterans between the ages of 18 and 60. Descriptive statistics based on in-app questionnaires indicate that on average, 12 (mean 12.23, SD 8.96) unique devices accessed the clinician portal per day for more than two years, while the app was rated as “highly usable”, achieving a mean System Usability Score score of 85.74 (SD 12.37), which translates to an adjective rating of “Excellent”. The participants also gave high scores on “ease of use and learnability” with an average score of 4.33 (SD 0.65) on a scale of 1 to 5. Conclusions: iREST provides a feasible platform for the implementation of Just in Time Adaptive Intervention in mHealth-based and remote intervention settings. The system was rated highly usable and its cross-platformness made it readily implemented within the heavily segregated smartphone market. The use of wearables to track sleep is promising; yet the accuracy of this technology needs further improvement. Ultimately, iREST demonstrates that mHealth-based Just in Time Adaptive Intervention is not only feasible, but also works effectively.

  • Assessing a mobile app using validated questionnaire. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL: http://humanfactors.jmir.org/2018/2/e10308/; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial + NoDerivatives (CC-BY-NC-ND).

    Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the Malay Version of the System Usability Scale Questionnaire for the Assessment of Mobile Apps

    Abstract:

    Background: A mobile app is a programmed system designed to be used by a target user on a mobile device. The usability of such a system refers not only to the extent to which product can be used to achieve the task that it was designed for, but also its effectiveness and efficiency, as well as user satisfaction. The System Usability Scale is one of the most commonly used questionnaires used to assess the usability of a system. The original 10-item version of System Usability Scale was developed in English and thus needs to be adapted into local languages to assess the usability of a mobile apps developed in other languages. Objective: The aim of this study is to translate and validate (with cross-cultural adaptation) the English System Usability Scale questionnaire into Malay, the main language spoken in Malaysia. The development of a translated version will allow the usability of mobile apps to be assessed in Malay. Methods: Forward and backward translation of the questionnaire was conducted by groups of Malay native speakers who spoke English as their second language. The final version was obtained after reconciliation and cross-cultural adaptation. The content of the Malay System Usability Scale questionnaire for mobile apps was validated by 10 experts in mobile app development. The efficacy of the questionnaire was further probed by testing the face validity on 10 mobile phone users, followed by reliability testing involving 54 mobile phone users. Results: The content validity index was determined to be 0.91, indicating good relevancy of the 10 items used to assess the usability of a mobile app. Calculation of the face validity index resulted in a value of 0.94, therefore indicating that the questionnaire was easily understood by the users. Reliability testing showed a Cronbach alpha value of .85 (95% CI 0.79-0.91) indicating that the translated System Usability Scale questionnaire is a reliable tool for the assessment of usability of a mobile app. Conclusions: The Malay System Usability Scale questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to assess the usability of mobile app in Malaysia.

  • Patient with knee osteoarthritis being examined by a doctor. Source: FreePik; Copyright: Peoplecreations; URL: https://www.freepik.com/free-photo/male-doctor-examining-patients-knee_1008367.htm#term=knee%20pain&page=1&position=38; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    A Web-Based Treatment Decision Support Tool for Patients With Advanced Knee Arthritis: Evaluation of User Interface and Content Design

    Abstract:

    Background: Data-driven surgical decisions will ensure proper use and timing of surgical care. We developed a Web-based patient-centered treatment decision and assessment tool to guide treatment decisions among patients with advanced knee osteoarthritis who are considering total knee replacement surgery. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine user experience and acceptance of the Web-based treatment decision support tool among older adults. Methods: User-centered formative and summative evaluations were conducted for the tool. A sample of 28 patients who were considering total knee replacement participated in the study. Participants’ responses to the user interface design, the clarity of information, as well as usefulness, satisfaction, and acceptance of the tool were collected through qualitative (ie, individual patient interviews) and quantitative (ie, standardized Computer System Usability Questionnaire) methods. Results: Participants were older adults with a mean age of 63 (SD 11) years. Three-quarters of them had no technical questions using the tool. User interface design recommendations included larger fonts, bigger buttons, less colors, simpler navigation without extra “next page” click, less mouse movement, and clearer illustrations with simple graphs. Color-coded bar charts and outcome-specific graphs with positive action were easiest for them to understand the outcomes data. Questionnaire data revealed high satisfaction with the tool usefulness and interface quality, and also showed ease of use of the tool, regardless of age or educational status. Conclusions: We evaluated the usability of a patient-centered decision support tool designed for advanced knee arthritis patients to facilitate their knee osteoarthritis treatment decision making. The lessons learned can inform other decision support tools to improve interface and content design for older patients’ use.

  • Source: Image created by the authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL: http://humanfactors.jmir.org/2018/2/e18/; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Enhancing Home Health Mobile Phone App Usability Through General Smartphone Training: Usability and Learnability Case Study

    Abstract:

    Background: Each year, millions of older adults fall, with more than 1 out of 4 older people experiencing a fall annually, thereby causing a major social and economic impact. Falling once doubles one’s chances of falling again, making fall prediction an important aspect of preventative strategies. In this study, 22 older adults aged between 65 and 85 years were trained in the use of a smartphone-based fall prediction system. The system is designed to continuously assess fall risk by measuring various gait and balance parameters using a smart insole and smartphone, and is also designed to detect falls. The use case of the fall prediction system in question required the users to interact with the smartphone via an app for device syncing, data uploads, and checking system status. Objective: The objective of this study was to observe the effect that basic smartphone training could have on the user experience of a group that is not technically proficient with smartphones when using a new connected health system. It was expected that even short rudimentary training could have a large effect on user experience and therefore increase the chances of the group accepting the new technology. Methods: All participants received training on how to use the system smartphone app; half of the participants (training group) also received extra training on how to use basic functions of the smartphone, such as making calls and sending text messages, whereas the other half did not receive this extra training (no extra training group). Comparison of training group and no extra training group was carried out using metrics such as satisfaction rating, time taken to complete tasks, cues required to complete tasks, and errors made during tasks. Results: The training group fared better in the first 3 days of using the system. There were significant recorded differences in number of cues required and errors committed between the two groups. By the fourth and fifth day of use, both groups were performing at the same level when using the system. Conclusions: Supplementary basic smartphone training may be critical in trials where a smartphone app–based system for health intervention purposes is being introduced to a population that is not proficient with technology. This training could prevent early technology rejection and increase the engagement of older participants and their overall user experience with the system.

  • Source: Flickr; Copyright: ILO / Thierry Falise; URL: https://www.flickr.com/photos/iloasiapacific/8055934815; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial + NoDerivatives (CC-BY-NC-ND).

    Designing for Clinical Change: Creating an Intervention to Implement New Statin Guidelines in a Primary Care Clinic

    Abstract:

    Background: Recent clinical practice guidelines from major national organizations, including a joint United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Department of Defense (DoD) committee, have substantially changed recommendations for the use of the cholesterol-lowering statin medications after years of relative stability. Because statin medications are among the most commonly prescribed treatments in the United States, any change in their use may have significant implications for patients and providers alike. Prior research has shown that effective implementation interventions should be both user centered and specifically chosen to address identified barriers. Objective: The objectives of this study were to identify potential determinants of provider uptake of the new statin guidelines and to use that information to tailor a coordinated and streamlined local quality improvement intervention focused on prescribing appropriate statins. Methods: We employed user-centered design principles to guide the development and testing of a multicomponent guideline implementation intervention to improve statin prescribing. This paper describes the intervention development process whereby semistructured qualitative interviews with providers were conducted to (1) illuminate the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of providers and (2) elicit feedback on intervention prototypes developed to align with and support the use of the VA/DoD guidelines. Our aim was to use this information to design a local quality improvement intervention focused on statin prescribing that was tailored to the needs of primary care providers at our facility. Cabana’s Clinical Practice Guidelines Framework for Improvement and Nielsen’s Usability Heuristics were used to guide the analysis of data obtained in the intervention development process. Results: Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 primary care Patient Aligned Care Team professionals (13 physicians and 2 clinical pharmacists) at a single VA medical center. Findings highlight that providers were generally comfortable with the paradigm shift to risk-based guidelines but less clear on the need for the VA/DoD guidelines in specific. Providers preferred a clinical decision support tool that helped them calculate patient risk and guide their care without limiting autonomy. They were less comfortable with risk communication and performance measurement systems that do not account for shared decision making. When possible, we incorporated their recommendations into the intervention. Conclusions: By combining qualitative methods and user-centered design principles, we could inform the design of a multicomponent guideline implementation intervention to better address the needs and preferences of providers, including clear and direct language, logical decision prompts with an option to dismiss a clinical decision support tool, and logical ordering of feedback information. Additionally, this process allowed us to identify future design considerations for quality improvement interventions.

  • Source: Freepik; Copyright: ijeab; URL: https://www.freepik.com/free-photo/doctor-and-patient_1211559.htm; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Value of Face-to-Face Interactions Between Clinician-Educators and Patients or Students to Improve Health Care Education

    Authors List:

    Abstract:

    The power and outreach of the media is enormous and has restructured our society today; the author acknowledges the impact and appreciates the outreach. However, I question the relative lack of focus on physical human interactions and express concern over future training efforts. I have compared and attempted to highlight the components of two interaction scenarios: those of teacher-student, and those of physician-patient. The physician-educators need to generate a discussion regarding the value of each interaction. As a teacher, there is value in online classrooms, and a different value in face-to-face interactions. Similarly, a physician can have major outreach impact by online tele-medicine and tele-education efforts, but in some instances, may need to have the human, physical interaction with the patient. The value of these interactions depends on the roles in which these interactions are experienced. Medical education training must incorporate an understanding of the unique value of different interactions.

  • Source: The Authors / Placeit.net; Copyright: The Authors; URL: http://humanfactors.jmir.org/2018/2/e16/t/; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Relationship Between Evidence Requirements, User Expectations, and Actual Experiences: Usability Evaluation of the Twazon Arabic Weight Loss App

    Abstract:

    Background: Saudi Arabia has faced a steady growth in the prevalence of obesity. The concurrent and ubiquitous use of mobile technology, such as smartphones and apps, provides an opportunity for the implementation of mHealth technology, a method for delivering behavioral interventions. Despite their effectiveness in promoting lifestyle and diet modification, culturally adapted weight loss apps and related interventions are lacking in Gulf Cooperation Council countries. Objective: The objective of our study was to identify the relationship between adherence to evidence-informed practices, potential user expectations, and actual user experiences in order to enhance the understanding of the overall usability of the Twazon Arabic weight loss app. Methods: In 2 previous studies, 39 Saudi women were recruited for focus group discussions and 240 Saudi women were recruited for an app-based weight loss intervention. Usability of the Twazon Arabic weight loss app was evaluated by analyzing the opinions and experiences of 26 participants who engaged with the Twazon app for 4 months; the System Usability Scale (SUS) and word clouds were used. The results were triangulated with potential user expectations obtained in the focus group discussion and with the findings from an Arabic app screening for evidence-informed practices. Results: The average reported SUS score was 69.3. The most favored features were the calorie counter, step counter, and physical activity calorie counter. The features in need of improvement were the social network, notifications, and the Twazon Saudi Food Database. Twazon users preferred and found useful 7 of the 13 evidence-informed weight loss practices that were integrated into the features of the app. Conclusions: Triangulation identified the most notable relationship to be the disparity between user experience and 2 of the evidence-informed practices, namely a minimum weight loss goal of 0.5 to 1 kg/week and social support; no relationship was found between user expectations and evidence-informed weight loss practices. The overall usability of the Twazon Arabic weight loss app ranged between high marginal and acceptable, indicating that some improvements to the app should be considered for implementation in future app-based weight loss interventions of this kind.

  • Source: The Authors / Placeit.net; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL: http://humanfactors.jmir.org/2018/2/e14/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    A Novel Information Retrieval Tool to Find Hospital Care Team Members: Development and Usability Study

    Abstract:

    Background: Hospital communication among members of a patient’s care team is a central part of clinical workflow and consumes a large amount of a health care provider’s time. Oftentimes the complexity of hospital care leads to difficulty in finding the appropriate contact, which can lead to inefficiencies and frustration. Squire is a Web-based information retrieval app created to improve the speed and efficiency in reaching the appropriate team member during the care of a hospitalized patient. Objective: The objective of the study was to design and develop Squire and to evaluate the usage, usability, and perceived effect of the app on finding the correct contact within a hospital. Methods: We used a mixed-methods design using a before-after survey methodology combined with one-on-one interviews to understand the perceived effect of Squire. The study took place at an academic medical center with internal medicine resident physicians. We surveyed residents on demographics, as well as time and efficiency of hospital communication before and after the use of Squire. After using Squire, participants were also asked to evaluate Squire’s Net Promoter Score (NPS). A subset of voluntary participants participated in one-on-one interviews and completed the System Usability Scale (SUS). We performed descriptive statistics on participant characteristics, app usage data, and responses to surveys. Survey results were compared before and after Squire adoption using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and a general linear model. Interview data were analyzed using content analysis with a qualitative description approach to review and categorize feedback from participants. Results: There was a 67.9% (74/109) response rate to the pre-Squire survey and 89.9% (98/109) response rate to the post-Squire survey. At baseline, there was an average of 22.2 (95% CI 18.4-26.0) minutes/day spent searching for the right contact, and this decreased to 16.3 (95% CI 13.9-18.7) minutes/day after Squire was launched (P=.01). There were favorable usability scores, with an average SUS of 84.7, and a marginal NPS of +6.1. Overall, the use of Squire included 22,283 page views, most commonly to contact the admissions office or portable chest x-ray technician. Interviews highlighted common benefits of Squire, including decreased perceived time spent on hold with operators and improvement in connecting with the appropriate contact in specialized, complex departments. Future opportunities were also identified to improve Squire including adding a two-way communication between physician and nursing staff and providing offline access. Conclusions: Squire decreased the perceived time required to find an appropriate contact and had a favorable usability score; however, the NPS was marginal and several opportunities were identified to improve Squire for future use.

  • Source: Freepik; Copyright: predragphoto77; URL: https://www.freepik.com/free-photo/depressing-schoolboy-has-difficulty-with-learning_1231209.htm; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    General Practitioners’ Attitudes Toward a Web-Based Mental Health Service for Adolescents: Implications for Service Design and Delivery

    Abstract:

    Background: Anxiety disorders and depression are prevalent among youth. General practitioners (GPs) are often the first point of professional contact for treating health problems in young people. A Web-based mental health service delivered in partnership with schools may facilitate increased access to psychological care among adolescents. However, for such a model to be implemented successfully, GPs’ views need to be measured. Objective: This study aimed to examine the needs and attitudes of GPs toward a Web-based mental health service for adolescents, and to identify the factors that may affect the provision of this type of service and likelihood of integration. Findings will inform the content and overall service design. Methods: GPs were interviewed individually about the proposed Web-based service. Qualitative analysis of transcripts was performed using thematic coding. A short follow-up questionnaire was delivered to assess background characteristics, level of acceptability, and likelihood of integration of the Web-based mental health service. Results: A total of 13 GPs participated in the interview and 11 completed a follow-up online questionnaire. Findings suggest strong support for the proposed Web-based mental health service. A wide range of factors were found to influence the likelihood of GPs integrating a Web-based service into their clinical practice. Coordinated collaboration with parents, students, school counselors, and other mental health care professionals were considered important by nearly all GPs. Confidence in Web-based care, noncompliance of adolescents and GPs, accessibility, privacy, and confidentiality were identified as potential barriers to adopting the proposed Web-based service. Conclusions: GPs were open to a proposed Web-based service for the monitoring and management of anxiety and depression in adolescents, provided that a collaborative approach to care is used, the feedback regarding the client is clear, and privacy and security provisions are assured.

  • Source: Shutterstock; Copyright: Georgejmclittle; URL: https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/girl-using-digital-generated-phone-health-327355193?src=CFEeT_Adw4mixha9yx0bEw-1-63; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Evaluating the Usability and Usefulness of a Mobile App for Atrial Fibrillation Using Qualitative Methods: Exploratory Pilot Study

    Abstract:

    Background: Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is the most common form of heart arrhythmia and a potent risk factor for stroke. Nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are routinely prescribed to manage AFib stroke risk; however, nonadherence to treatment is a concern. Additional tools that support self-care and medication adherence may benefit patients with AFib. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceived usability and usefulness of a mobile app designed to support self-care and treatment adherence for AFib patients who are prescribed NOACs. Methods: A mobile app to support AFib patients was previously developed based on early stage interview and usability test data from clinicians and patients. An exploratory pilot study consisting of naturalistic app use, surveys, and semistructured interviews was then conducted to examine patients’ perceptions and everyday use of the app. Results: A total of 12 individuals with an existing diagnosis of nonvalvular AFib completed the 4-week study. The average age of participants was 59 years. All participants somewhat or strongly agreed that the app was easy to use, and 92% (11/12) reported being satisfied or very satisfied with the app. Participant feedback identified changes that may improve app usability and usefulness for patients with AFib. Areas of usability improvement were organized by three themes: app navigation, clarity of app instructions and design intent, and software bugs. Perceptions of app usefulness were grouped by three key variables: core needs of the patient segment, patient workflow while managing AFib, and the app’s ability to support the patient’s evolving needs. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that mobile tools that target self-care and treatment adherence may be helpful to AFib patients, particularly those who are newly diagnosed. Additionally, participant feedback provided insight into the varied needs and health experiences of AFib patients, which may improve the design and targeting of the intervention. Pilot studies that qualitatively examine patient perceptions of usability and usefulness are a valuable and often underutilized method for assessing the real-world acceptability of an intervention. Additional research evaluating the AFib Connect mobile app over a longer period, and including a larger, more diverse sample of AFib patients, will be helpful for understanding whether the app is perceived more broadly to be useful and effective in supporting patient self-care and medication adherence.

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  • Usability Assessment of the Missouri Cancer Registry’s Published Interactive Mapping Reports: Round Two

    Date Submitted: Jun 5, 2018

    Open Peer Review Period: Jun 7, 2018 - Jun 21, 2018

    Background: Health-related data’s users have trouble understanding and interpreting combined statistical and mapping information. This is the second round of a usability study conducted after we mod...

    Background: Health-related data’s users have trouble understanding and interpreting combined statistical and mapping information. This is the second round of a usability study conducted after we modified and simplified our tested maps based on the first round’s results. Objective: To explore if the tested maps’ usability improved by modifying the maps according to the first round’s results Methods: We recruited 13 cancer professionals from National American Central Cancer registries (NACCR) 2016 conference. The study involved three phases per participant: A pretest questionnaire, the multi-task usability test, and the System Usability Scale (SUS). Software was used to record the computer screen during the trial and the users’ spoken comments. We measured several qualitative and quantitative usability metrics. The study’s data was analyzed using spreadsheet software. Results: In the current study, unlike the previous round, there was no significant statistical relationship between the subjects’ performance on the study test and the experience in GIS tools (P = .17 previously was .03). Three out of the four (75%) of our subjects with a bachelor’s degree or less accomplished the given tasks effectively and efficiently. This study developed a comparable satisfaction results to the first round study, despite that the previous round’s participants were highly educated and more experienced with GIS. Conclusions: By considering the round one’s results and by updating our maps, we made the tested maps simpler to be used by subjects who have little experience in using GIS technology, and have little spatial and statistical knowledge.

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