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JMIR Human Factors

Making health care interventions and technologies usable, safe, and effective


Journal Description

JMIR Human Factors (JHF) is a PubMed-indexed, peer-reviewed sister journal of JMIR, a leading open access eHealth journal  (Impact Factor 2016: 5.175).
JMIR Human Factors is a multidisciplinary journal with contributions from medical researchers, engineers, and social scientists.
JMIR Human Factors focuses on understanding how the behaviour and thinking of humans can influence and shape the design of health care interventions and technologies, and how the design can be evaluated and improved to make health care interventions and technologies usable, safe, and effective. JHF aspires to lead health care towards a culture of testing and safety by promoting and publishing reports rigorously evaluating the usability and human factors aspects in health care, as well as encouraging the development and debate on new methods in this emerging field. 
All articles are professionally copyedited and typeset, ready for indexing in PubMed/PubMed Central. Possible contributions include usability studies and heuristic evaluations, studies concerning ergonomics and error prevention, design studies for medical devices and healthcare systems/workflows, enhancing teamwork through Human Factors based teamwork training, measuring non-technical skills in staff like leadership, communication, situational awareness and teamwork, and healthcare policies and procedures to reduce errors and increase safety. Reviews, viewpoint papers and tutorials are as welcome as original research.

Editorial Board members are currently being recruited, please contact us if you are interested ( at


Recent Articles:

  • Source: Image created by the authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Enhancing Home Health Mobile Phone App Usability Through General Smartphone Training: Usability and Learnability Case Study


    Background: Each year, millions of older adults fall, with more than 1 out of 4 older people experiencing a fall annually, thereby causing a major social and economic impact. Falling once doubles one’s chances of falling again, making fall prediction an important aspect of preventative strategies. In this study, 22 older adults aged between 65 and 85 years were trained in the use of a smartphone-based fall prediction system. The system is designed to continuously assess fall risk by measuring various gait and balance parameters using a smart insole and smartphone, and is also designed to detect falls. The use case of the fall prediction system in question required the users to interact with the smartphone via an app for device syncing, data uploads, and checking system status. Objective: The objective of this study was to observe the effect that basic smartphone training could have on the user experience of a group that is not technically proficient with smartphones when using a new connected health system. It was expected that even short rudimentary training could have a large effect on user experience and therefore increase the chances of the group accepting the new technology. Methods: All participants received training on how to use the system smartphone app; half of the participants (training group) also received extra training on how to use basic functions of the smartphone, such as making calls and sending text messages, whereas the other half did not receive this extra training (no extra training group). Comparison of training group and no extra training group was carried out using metrics such as satisfaction rating, time taken to complete tasks, cues required to complete tasks, and errors made during tasks. Results: The training group fared better in the first 3 days of using the system. There were significant recorded differences in number of cues required and errors committed between the two groups. By the fourth and fifth day of use, both groups were performing at the same level when using the system. Conclusions: Supplementary basic smartphone training may be critical in trials where a smartphone app–based system for health intervention purposes is being introduced to a population that is not proficient with technology. This training could prevent early technology rejection and increase the engagement of older participants and their overall user experience with the system.

  • Source: Flickr; Copyright: ILO / Thierry Falise; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial + NoDerivatives (CC-BY-NC-ND).

    Designing for Clinical Change: Creating an Intervention to Implement New Statin Guidelines in a Primary Care Clinic


    Background: Recent clinical practice guidelines from major national organizations, including a joint United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Department of Defense (DoD) committee, have substantially changed recommendations for the use of the cholesterol-lowering statin medications after years of relative stability. Because statin medications are among the most commonly prescribed treatments in the United States, any change in their use may have significant implications for patients and providers alike. Prior research has shown that effective implementation interventions should be both user centered and specifically chosen to address identified barriers. Objective: The objectives of this study were to identify potential determinants of provider uptake of the new statin guidelines and to use that information to tailor a coordinated and streamlined local quality improvement intervention focused on prescribing appropriate statins. Methods: We employed user-centered design principles to guide the development and testing of a multicomponent guideline implementation intervention to improve statin prescribing. This paper describes the intervention development process whereby semistructured qualitative interviews with providers were conducted to (1) illuminate the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of providers and (2) elicit feedback on intervention prototypes developed to align with and support the use of the VA/DoD guidelines. Our aim was to use this information to design a local quality improvement intervention focused on statin prescribing that was tailored to the needs of primary care providers at our facility. Cabana’s Clinical Practice Guidelines Framework for Improvement and Nielsen’s Usability Heuristics were used to guide the analysis of data obtained in the intervention development process. Results: Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 primary care Patient Aligned Care Team professionals (13 physicians and 2 clinical pharmacists) at a single VA medical center. Findings highlight that providers were generally comfortable with the paradigm shift to risk-based guidelines but less clear on the need for the VA/DoD guidelines in specific. Providers preferred a clinical decision support tool that helped them calculate patient risk and guide their care without limiting autonomy. They were less comfortable with risk communication and performance measurement systems that do not account for shared decision making. When possible, we incorporated their recommendations into the intervention. Conclusions: By combining qualitative methods and user-centered design principles, we could inform the design of a multicomponent guideline implementation intervention to better address the needs and preferences of providers, including clear and direct language, logical decision prompts with an option to dismiss a clinical decision support tool, and logical ordering of feedback information. Additionally, this process allowed us to identify future design considerations for quality improvement interventions.

  • Source: Freepik; Copyright: ijeab; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Value of Face-to-Face Interactions Between Clinician-Educators and Patients or Students to Improve Health Care Education

    Authors List:


    The power and outreach of the media is enormous and has restructured our society today; the author acknowledges the impact and appreciates the outreach. However, I question the relative lack of focus on physical human interactions and express concern over future training efforts. I have compared and attempted to highlight the components of two interaction scenarios: those of teacher-student, and those of physician-patient. The physician-educators need to generate a discussion regarding the value of each interaction. As a teacher, there is value in online classrooms, and a different value in face-to-face interactions. Similarly, a physician can have major outreach impact by online tele-medicine and tele-education efforts, but in some instances, may need to have the human, physical interaction with the patient. The value of these interactions depends on the roles in which these interactions are experienced. Medical education training must incorporate an understanding of the unique value of different interactions.

  • Source: The Authors /; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Relationship Between Evidence Requirements, User Expectations, and Actual Experiences: Usability Evaluation of the Twazon Arabic Weight Loss App


    Background: Saudi Arabia has faced a steady growth in the prevalence of obesity. The concurrent and ubiquitous use of mobile technology, such as smartphones and apps, provides an opportunity for the implementation of mHealth technology, a method for delivering behavioral interventions. Despite their effectiveness in promoting lifestyle and diet modification, culturally adapted weight loss apps and related interventions are lacking in Gulf Cooperation Council countries. Objective: The objective of our study was to identify the relationship between adherence to evidence-informed practices, potential user expectations, and actual user experiences in order to enhance the understanding of the overall usability of the Twazon Arabic weight loss app. Methods: In 2 previous studies, 39 Saudi women were recruited for focus group discussions and 240 Saudi women were recruited for an app-based weight loss intervention. Usability of the Twazon Arabic weight loss app was evaluated by analyzing the opinions and experiences of 26 participants who engaged with the Twazon app for 4 months; the System Usability Scale (SUS) and word clouds were used. The results were triangulated with potential user expectations obtained in the focus group discussion and with the findings from an Arabic app screening for evidence-informed practices. Results: The average reported SUS score was 69.3. The most favored features were the calorie counter, step counter, and physical activity calorie counter. The features in need of improvement were the social network, notifications, and the Twazon Saudi Food Database. Twazon users preferred and found useful 7 of the 13 evidence-informed weight loss practices that were integrated into the features of the app. Conclusions: Triangulation identified the most notable relationship to be the disparity between user experience and 2 of the evidence-informed practices, namely a minimum weight loss goal of 0.5 to 1 kg/week and social support; no relationship was found between user expectations and evidence-informed weight loss practices. The overall usability of the Twazon Arabic weight loss app ranged between high marginal and acceptable, indicating that some improvements to the app should be considered for implementation in future app-based weight loss interventions of this kind.

  • Source: The Authors /; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    A Novel Information Retrieval Tool to Find Hospital Care Team Members: Development and Usability Study


    Background: Hospital communication among members of a patient’s care team is a central part of clinical workflow and consumes a large amount of a health care provider’s time. Oftentimes the complexity of hospital care leads to difficulty in finding the appropriate contact, which can lead to inefficiencies and frustration. Squire is a Web-based information retrieval app created to improve the speed and efficiency in reaching the appropriate team member during the care of a hospitalized patient. Objective: The objective of the study was to design and develop Squire and to evaluate the usage, usability, and perceived effect of the app on finding the correct contact within a hospital. Methods: We used a mixed-methods design using a before-after survey methodology combined with one-on-one interviews to understand the perceived effect of Squire. The study took place at an academic medical center with internal medicine resident physicians. We surveyed residents on demographics, as well as time and efficiency of hospital communication before and after the use of Squire. After using Squire, participants were also asked to evaluate Squire’s Net Promoter Score (NPS). A subset of voluntary participants participated in one-on-one interviews and completed the System Usability Scale (SUS). We performed descriptive statistics on participant characteristics, app usage data, and responses to surveys. Survey results were compared before and after Squire adoption using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and a general linear model. Interview data were analyzed using content analysis with a qualitative description approach to review and categorize feedback from participants. Results: There was a 67.9% (74/109) response rate to the pre-Squire survey and 89.9% (98/109) response rate to the post-Squire survey. At baseline, there was an average of 22.2 (95% CI 18.4-26.0) minutes/day spent searching for the right contact, and this decreased to 16.3 (95% CI 13.9-18.7) minutes/day after Squire was launched (P=.01). There were favorable usability scores, with an average SUS of 84.7, and a marginal NPS of +6.1. Overall, the use of Squire included 22,283 page views, most commonly to contact the admissions office or portable chest x-ray technician. Interviews highlighted common benefits of Squire, including decreased perceived time spent on hold with operators and improvement in connecting with the appropriate contact in specialized, complex departments. Future opportunities were also identified to improve Squire including adding a two-way communication between physician and nursing staff and providing offline access. Conclusions: Squire decreased the perceived time required to find an appropriate contact and had a favorable usability score; however, the NPS was marginal and several opportunities were identified to improve Squire for future use.

  • Source: Freepik; Copyright: predragphoto77; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    General Practitioners’ Attitudes Toward a Web-Based Mental Health Service for Adolescents: Implications for Service Design and Delivery


    Background: Anxiety disorders and depression are prevalent among youth. General practitioners (GPs) are often the first point of professional contact for treating health problems in young people. A Web-based mental health service delivered in partnership with schools may facilitate increased access to psychological care among adolescents. However, for such a model to be implemented successfully, GPs’ views need to be measured. Objective: This study aimed to examine the needs and attitudes of GPs toward a Web-based mental health service for adolescents, and to identify the factors that may affect the provision of this type of service and likelihood of integration. Findings will inform the content and overall service design. Methods: GPs were interviewed individually about the proposed Web-based service. Qualitative analysis of transcripts was performed using thematic coding. A short follow-up questionnaire was delivered to assess background characteristics, level of acceptability, and likelihood of integration of the Web-based mental health service. Results: A total of 13 GPs participated in the interview and 11 completed a follow-up online questionnaire. Findings suggest strong support for the proposed Web-based mental health service. A wide range of factors were found to influence the likelihood of GPs integrating a Web-based service into their clinical practice. Coordinated collaboration with parents, students, school counselors, and other mental health care professionals were considered important by nearly all GPs. Confidence in Web-based care, noncompliance of adolescents and GPs, accessibility, privacy, and confidentiality were identified as potential barriers to adopting the proposed Web-based service. Conclusions: GPs were open to a proposed Web-based service for the monitoring and management of anxiety and depression in adolescents, provided that a collaborative approach to care is used, the feedback regarding the client is clear, and privacy and security provisions are assured.

  • Source: Shutterstock; Copyright: Georgejmclittle; URL:; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Evaluating the Usability and Usefulness of a Mobile App for Atrial Fibrillation Using Qualitative Methods: Exploratory Pilot Study


    Background: Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is the most common form of heart arrhythmia and a potent risk factor for stroke. Nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are routinely prescribed to manage AFib stroke risk; however, nonadherence to treatment is a concern. Additional tools that support self-care and medication adherence may benefit patients with AFib. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceived usability and usefulness of a mobile app designed to support self-care and treatment adherence for AFib patients who are prescribed NOACs. Methods: A mobile app to support AFib patients was previously developed based on early stage interview and usability test data from clinicians and patients. An exploratory pilot study consisting of naturalistic app use, surveys, and semistructured interviews was then conducted to examine patients’ perceptions and everyday use of the app. Results: A total of 12 individuals with an existing diagnosis of nonvalvular AFib completed the 4-week study. The average age of participants was 59 years. All participants somewhat or strongly agreed that the app was easy to use, and 92% (11/12) reported being satisfied or very satisfied with the app. Participant feedback identified changes that may improve app usability and usefulness for patients with AFib. Areas of usability improvement were organized by three themes: app navigation, clarity of app instructions and design intent, and software bugs. Perceptions of app usefulness were grouped by three key variables: core needs of the patient segment, patient workflow while managing AFib, and the app’s ability to support the patient’s evolving needs. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that mobile tools that target self-care and treatment adherence may be helpful to AFib patients, particularly those who are newly diagnosed. Additionally, participant feedback provided insight into the varied needs and health experiences of AFib patients, which may improve the design and targeting of the intervention. Pilot studies that qualitatively examine patient perceptions of usability and usefulness are a valuable and often underutilized method for assessing the real-world acceptability of an intervention. Additional research evaluating the AFib Connect mobile app over a longer period, and including a larger, more diverse sample of AFib patients, will be helpful for understanding whether the app is perceived more broadly to be useful and effective in supporting patient self-care and medication adherence.

  • Diabetic woman reading a bottle label as part of her diabetes self-management routine. Source: Pixnio; Copyright: Amanda Mills, USCDCP; URL:; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Human Factors and Data Logging Processes With the Use of Advanced Technology for Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: Systematic Integrative Review


    Background: People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) undertake self-management to prevent short and long-term complications. Advanced technology potentially supports such activities but requires consideration of psychological and behavioral constructs and usability issues. Economic factors and health care provider capacity influence access and uptake of advanced technology. Previous reviews have focused upon clinical outcomes or were descriptive or have synthesized studies on adults with those on children and young people where human factors are different. Objective: This review described and examined the relationship between human factors and adherence with technology for data logging processes in adults with T1D. Methods: A systematic literature search was undertaken by using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Quality appraisal was undertaken and data were abstracted and categorized into the themes that underpinned the human factor constructs that were examined. Results: A total of 18 studies were included. A total of 6 constructs emerged from the data analysis: the relationship between adherence to data logging and measurable outcomes; satisfaction with the transition to advanced technology for self-management; use of advanced technology and time spent on diabetes-related activities; strategies to mediate the complexities of diabetes and the use of advanced technology; cognition in the wild; and meanings, views, and perspectives from the users of technology. Conclusions: Increased treatment satisfaction was found on transition from traditional to advanced technology use—insulin pump and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM); the most significant factor was when blood glucose levels were consistently <7.00 mmol/L (P ≤.01). Participants spent considerable time on their diabetes self-care. Logging of data was positively correlated with increasing age when using an app that provided meaningful feedback (regression coefficient=55.8 recordings/year; P ≤.01). There were benefits of CGM for older people in mediating complexities and fears of hypoglycemia with significant differences in well-being (P ≤.001). Qualitative studies explored the contextual use and uptake of technology. The results suggested frustrations with CGM, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, calibration of devices, and alarms. Furthermore implications for “body image” and the way in which “significant others” impacted on the behavior and attitude of the individual toward technology use. There were wide variations in the normal use of and interaction with technology across a continuum of sociocultural contexts, which has implications for the way in which future technologies should be designed. Quantitative studies were limited by small sample sizes, making it difficult to generalize findings to other contexts. This was further limited by a sample that was predominantly white, well-controlled, and engaged with self-care. The use of critical appraisal frameworks demonstrated where research into human factors and data logging processes of individuals could be improved. This included engaging people in the design of the technology, especially hard-to-reach or marginalized groups.

  • eHOME in home care. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Development of eHOME, a Mobile Instrument for Reporting, Monitoring, and Consulting Drug-Related Problems in Home Care: Human-Centered Design Study


    Background: Home care patients often use many medications and are prone to drug-related problems (DRPs). For the management of problems related to drug use, home care could add to the multidisciplinary expertise of general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists. The home care observation of medication-related problems by home care employees (HOME)-instrument is paper-based and assists home care workers in reporting potential DRPs. To facilitate the multiprofessional consultation, a digital report of DRPs from the HOME-instrument and digital monitoring and consulting of DRPs between home care and general practices and pharmacies is desired. Objective: The objective of this study was to develop an electronic HOME system (eHOME), a mobile version of the HOME-instrument that includes a monitoring and a consulting system for primary care. Methods: The development phase of the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework was followed in which an iterative human-centered design (HCD) approach was applied. The approach involved a Delphi round for the context of use and user requirements analysis of the digital HOME-instrument and the monitoring and consulting system followed by 2 series of pilots for testing the usability and redesign. Results: By using an iterative design approach and by involving home care workers, GPs, and pharmacists throughout the process as informants, design partners, and testers, important aspects that were crucial for system realization and user acceptance were revealed. Through the report webpage interface, which includes the adjusted content of the HOME-instrument and added home care practice–based problems, home care workers can digitally report observed DRPs. Furthermore, it was found that the monitoring and consulting webpage interfaces enable digital consultation between home care and general practices and pharmacies. The webpages were considered convenient, clear, easy, and usable. Conclusions: By employing an HCD approach, the eHOME-instrument was found to be an easy-to-use system. The systematic approach promises a valuable contribution for the future development of digital mobile systems of paper-based tools.

  • User examining healthy vitamin B12 results with the NutriPhone hybrid design interface (montage). Source: The Authors /; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Supporting Accurate Interpretation of Self-Administered Medical Test Results for Mobile Health: Assessment of Design, Demographics, and Health Condition


    Background: Technological advances in personal informatics allow people to track their own health in a variety of ways, representing a dramatic change in individuals’ control of their own wellness. However, research regarding patient interpretation of traditional medical tests highlights the risks in making complex medical data available to a general audience. Objective: This study aimed to explore how people interpret medical test results, examined in the context of a mobile blood testing system developed to enable self-care and health management. Methods: In a preliminary investigation and main study, we presented 27 and 303 adults, respectively, with hypothetical results from several blood tests via one of the several mobile interface designs: a number representing the raw measurement of the tested biomarker, natural language text indicating whether the biomarker’s level was low or high, or a one-dimensional chart illustrating this level along a low-healthy axis. We measured respondents’ correctness in evaluating these results and their confidence in their interpretations. Participants also told us about any follow-up actions they would take based on the result and how they envisioned, generally, using our proposed personal health system. Results: We find that a majority of participants (242/328, 73.8%) were accurate in their interpretations of their diagnostic results. However, 135 of 328 participants (41.1%) expressed uncertainty and confusion about their ability to correctly interpret these results. We also find that demographics and interface design can impact interpretation accuracy, including false confidence, which we define as a respondent having above average confidence despite interpreting a result inaccurately. Specifically, participants who saw a natural language design were the least likely (421.47 times, P=.02) to exhibit false confidence, and women who saw a graph design were less likely (8.67 times, P=.04) to have false confidence. On the other hand, false confidence was more likely among participants who self-identified as Asian (25.30 times, P=.02), white (13.99 times, P=.01), and Hispanic (6.19 times, P=.04). Finally, with the natural language design, participants who were more educated were, for each one-unit increase in education level, more likely (3.06 times, P=.02) to have false confidence. Conclusions: Our findings illustrate both promises and challenges of interpreting medical data outside of a clinical setting and suggest instances where personal informatics may be inappropriate. In surfacing these tensions, we outline concrete interface design strategies that are more sensitive to users’ capabilities and conditions.

  • Co-designing collaborative chronic care. Source: Flickr; Copyright: Carlos M Vazquez; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + ShareAlike (CC-BY-SA).

    Co-Designing a Collaborative Chronic Care Network (C3N) for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Development of Methods


    Background: Our health care system fails to deliver necessary results, and incremental system improvements will not deliver needed change. Learning health systems (LHSs) are seen as a means to accelerate outcomes, improve care delivery, and further clinical research; yet, few such systems exist. We describe the process of codesigning, with all relevant stakeholders, an approach for creating a collaborative chronic care network (C3N), a peer-produced networked LHS. Objective: The objective of this study was to report the methods used, with a diverse group of stakeholders, to translate the idea of a C3N to a set of actionable next steps. Methods: The setting was ImproveCareNow, an improvement network for pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. In collaboration with patients and families, clinicians, researchers, social scientists, technologists, and designers, C3N leaders used a modified idealized design process to develop a design for a C3N. Results: Over 100 people participated in the design process that resulted in (1) an overall concept design for the ImproveCareNow C3N, (2) a logic model for bringing about this system, and (3) 13 potential innovations likely to increase awareness and agency, make it easier to collect and share information, and to enhance collaboration that could be tested collectively to bring about the C3N. Conclusions: We demonstrate methods that resulted in a design that has the potential to transform the chronic care system into an LHS.

  • MIK application (montage). Source: The Authors / Can Stock Photo Inc; Copyright: The Authors / Andrey Popov; URL:; License: Licensed by the authors.

    How Health Care Professionals Evaluate a Digital Intervention to Improve Medication Adherence: Qualitative Exploratory Study


    Background: Medication nonadherence poses a serious and a hard-to-tackle problem for many chronic diseases. Electronic health (eHealth) apps that foster patient engagement and shared decision making (SDM) may be a novel approach to improve medication adherence. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the perspective of health care professionals regarding a newly developed digital app aimed to improve medication adherence. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) was chosen as a case example. Methods: A Web-based prototype of the eHealth app—MIK—was codesigned with patients and health care professionals. After user tests with patients, we performed semistructured interviews and user tests with 12 physicians from 6 different hospitals to examine how the functionalities offered by MIK could assist physicians in their consultation and how they could be integrated into daily clinical practice. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify themes that covered the physicians’ evaluations. Results: On the basis of the interview data, 3 themes were identified, which were (1) perceived impact on patient-physician collaboration; (2) perceived impact on the patient’s understanding and self-management regarding medication adherence; and (3) perceived impact on clinical decisions and workflow. Conclusions: The eHealth app MIK seems to have the potential to improve the consultation between the patient and the physician in terms of collaboration and patient engagement. The impact of eHealth apps based on the concept of SDM for improving medication-taking behavior and clinical outcomes is yet to be evaluated. Insights will be useful for further development of eHealth apps aimed at improving self-management by means of patient engagement and SDM.

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  • Co-creating an eHealth tool to support self-management in COPD: perspectives on usefulness and relevance

    Date Submitted: Apr 17, 2018

    Open Peer Review Period: Apr 19, 2018 - May 3, 2018

    Background: There is an urgent need to find new strategies to support self-management for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care. The use of electronic health (eHealt...

    Background: There is an urgent need to find new strategies to support self-management for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care. The use of electronic health (eHealth) solutions is a promising approach, but there is a lack of knowledge about how such eHealth tools should be designed in order to meet the users’ needs and facilitate the implementation. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to explore what aspects of the design and content of an eHealth tool that would make it relevant and useful for supporting COPD-related self-management strategies from the perspectives of healthcare professionals, people with COPD, relatives, and researchers. Methods: Data were collected during the development of an eHealth tool. A co-creation process was carried out with participants from two primary care units in northern Sweden, and with external researchers. Individual interviews were performed with healthcare professionals (n = 13), people with COPD (n = 6), and their relatives (n = 2), and focus group discussions (n = 9) were held with all groups of participants. All data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The overarching theme, reinforcing existing support structures reflects participants’ views that the content of the eHealth tool needs to be directly applicable and create a sense of commitment in its users. Moreover, the participants perceived that eHealth tool needs to fit with existing routines and contexts and preferably should not challenge existing hierarchies between healthcare professionals and people with COPD. Important content for healthcare professionals and people with COPD included knowledge about self-management strategies, and videos were seen as the most effective method for communicating such knowledge. Conclusions: The co-creation in the development process enable the participants’ perspectives and priorities to be built into the eHealth tool. This is assumed to contribute to a tool that has the potential to be useful and relevant, and therefore adopted, in clinical practice and in everyday life. Findings from the present study can inform the development of eHealth tools for people with COPD in other contexts, as well as the development of eHealth tools for self-management support for other chronic diseases.