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Currently accepted at: JMIR Human Factors

Date Submitted: Jul 14, 2019
Open Peer Review Period: Jul 17, 2019 - Jul 31, 2019
Date Accepted: Nov 26, 2019
(closed for review but you can still tweet)

This paper has been accepted and is currently in production.

It will appear shortly on 10.2196/15487

The final accepted version (not copyedited yet) is in this tab.

Effectiveness of ColorApp Mobile Application for Health Education and Promotion on Colorectal Cancer: A Quasi-Experimental Study

  • Nor Azwany Yaacob; 
  • Muhamad Fadhil Mohamad Marzuki; 
  • Najib Majdi Yaacob; 
  • Shahrul Bariyah Ahmad; 
  • Muhammad Radzi Abu Hassan; 




Lack of knowledge and poor attitude is one of the barriers to colorectal cancer screening participation. Printed material such as pamphlets and posters were the main approach in health education on disease prevention. Current information technology advancement had seen an increasing trend of the public to read from websites and mobile app using their smartphone. Thus, health information dissemination should also be diverted to the current trend of information search. Increase in knowledge and awareness will hopefully increase the screening participation and prevent late detection of diseases such as colorectal cancer.


This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of ColorApp mobile applications in improving the knowledge and attitude on colorectal cancer among user aged 50 years old and above who are the population at risk for the disease in Kedah.



A quasi-experimental study has been conducted involving 100 participants in Kedah, Malaysia. Participants from five randomly selected community empowerment program in Kota Setar district was chosen as the intervention group while Kuala Muda district was chosen as the control group. Participants were given a self-administered validated questionnaire on knowledge and attitude towards colorectal cancer. A usable mobile application, the ColorApp (Colorectal Cancer Application) was developed as a new educational tool on colorectal cancer prevention. The intervention group were given 2 weeks to use the ColorApp. The same questionnaire was redistributed to both groups after two weeks. The mean percentage score for knowledge and attitude between groups were compared using Repeated Measure ANCOVA.


Result: There was no significant difference of age, sex, highest education level, current occupation, and diabetic status between the two groups. The number of smokers was significantly higher in intervention groups as compared to control group and it has been controlled during analysis. There was a significant difference in mean knowledge score between intervention and control group with regards to time [Huynh Feldt: F (1,95) = 19.81; p < 0.001]. However, there was no significant difference in mean attitude score between intervention and control group with regards to time [F (1,95) = 0.36, p = 0.550].


Conclusion: The mobile application can be one of the adjunct approaches in educating the public on colorectal cancer.


Please cite as:

Yaacob NA, Mohamad Marzuki MF, Yaacob NM, Ahmad SB, Abu Hassan MR

Effectiveness of ColorApp Mobile Application for Health Education and Promotion on Colorectal Cancer: A Quasi-Experimental Study

DOI: 10.2196/15487


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