Maintenance Notice

Due to necessary scheduled maintenance, the JMIR Publications website will be unavailable from Monday, March 11, 2019 at 4:00 PM to 4:30 PM EST. We apologize in advance for any inconvenience this may cause you.

Who will be affected?


Currently submitted to: JMIR Human Factors

Date Submitted: Feb 26, 2020
Open Peer Review Period: Feb 26, 2020 - Apr 26, 2020
(currently open for review)

Warning: This is an author submission that is not peer-reviewed or edited. Preprints - unless they show as "accepted" - should not be relied on to guide clinical practice or health-related behavior and should not be reported in news media as established information.

Applying a Human Centered Design to develop a patient prioritization tool for a pediatric emergency department

  • Jessica Schiro; 
  • Sylvia Pelayo; 
  • Alain Martinot; 
  • François Dubos; 
  • Marie-Catherine Beuscart-Zéphir; 
  • Romaric Marcilly; 



Overcrowding in the emergency departments has become an increasingly significant problem. Patient triage strategies are acknowledged to help clinicians manage patient flow and reduce patients’ waiting time. Yet, electronic patient triage systems are not developed so that they comply with clinicians’ work’s habits.


This case study presents the development of a patient prioritization tool (PPT) and of the related patient prioritization algorithm (PPA) for a pediatric emergency department (PED) relying on a human-centered design process.


We followed a human-centered design process: (i) we performed a work system analysis through observations and interviews in an academic hospital’s PED; (ii) design specifications were deduced; (iii) we designed a PPT and the related PPA; and (iv) we performed user testing to validate the tool suits clinicians’ habits of works.


We developed mockups of the PPT along with the PPA. The mock PPT gives the status of patients progressing through the PED in an intuitive and immediately understandable way along with an overview of all the patients in the PED. The PPA can automatically be fed with data from a patient management software, calculate the status of each patient in real-time, and moves them through the PPT interface, thus showing the patients’ suggested level of priority.


This case study showed the value of integrating human factors into the design process for a PPT for PED. A PPT complying with the work habits of the clinicians is more likely to be accepted and used and may contribute to help reduce overcrowding in PED.


Please cite as:

Schiro J, Pelayo S, Martinot A, Dubos F, Beuscart-Zéphir M, Marcilly R

Applying a Human Centered Design to develop a patient prioritization tool for a pediatric emergency department

JMIR Preprints. 26/02/2020:18427

DOI: 10.2196/preprints.18427


Download PDF

Request queued. Please wait while the file is being generated. It may take some time.

© The authors. All rights reserved. This is a privileged document currently under peer-review/community review (or an accepted/rejected manuscript). Authors have provided JMIR Publications with an exclusive license to publish this preprint on it's website for review and ahead-of-print citation purposes only. While the final peer-reviewed paper may be licensed under a cc-by license on publication, at this stage authors and publisher expressively prohibit redistribution of this draft paper other than for review purposes.