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Journal Description

JMIR Human Factors (JHF) is a PubMed-indexed, peer-reviewed sister journal of JMIR, a leading open access eHealth journal (Impact Factor 2017: 4.671).
JMIR Human Factors is a multidisciplinary journal with contributions from medical researchers, engineers, and social scientists.

JMIR Human Factors focuses on understanding how the behaviour and thinking of humans can influence and shape the design of health care interventions and technologies, and how the design can be evaluated and improved to make health care interventions and technologies usable, safe, and effective. JHF aspires to lead health care towards a culture of testing and safety by promoting and publishing reports rigorously evaluating the usability and human factors aspects in health care, as well as encouraging the development and debate on new methods in this emerging field. 

All articles are professionally copyedited and typeset, ready for indexing in PubMed/PubMed Central. Possible contributions include usability studies and heuristic evaluations, studies concerning ergonomics and error prevention, design studies for medical devices and healthcare systems/workflows, enhancing teamwork through Human Factors based teamwork training, measuring non-technical skills in staff like leadership, communication, situational awareness and teamwork, and healthcare policies and procedures to reduce errors and increase safety. Reviews, viewpoint papers and tutorials are as welcome as original research.

Editorial Board members are currently being recruited, please contact us if you are interested ( at


Recent Articles:

  • Source: Unsplash; Copyright: Rawpixel; URL:; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Advancing Cardiac Surgery Case Planning and Case Review Conferences Using Virtual Reality in Medical Libraries: Evaluation of the Usability of Two Virtual...


    Background: Care providers and surgeons prepare for cardiac surgery using case conferences to review, discuss, and run through the surgical procedure. Surgeons visualize a patient’s anatomy to decide the right surgical approach using magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiograms in a presurgical case planning session. Previous studies have shown that surgical errors can be reduced through the effective use of immersive virtual reality (VR) to visualize patient anatomy. However, inconsistent user interfaces, delegation of view control, and insufficient depth information cause user disorientation and interaction difficulties in using VR apps for case planning. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the usability of 2 commercially available VR apps—Bosc (Pyrus Medical systems) and Medical Holodeck (Nooon Web & IT GmbH)—using the Vive VR headset (HTC Corporation) to evaluate ease of use, physician attitudes toward VR technology, and viability for presurgical case planning. The role of medical libraries in advancing case planning is also explored. Methods: After screening a convenience sample of surgeons, fellows, and residents, ethnographic interviews were conducted to understand physician attitudes and experience with VR. Gaps in current case planning methods were also examined. We ran a usability study, employing a concurrent think-aloud protocol. To evaluate user satisfaction, we used the system usability scale (SUS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX). A poststudy questionnaire was used to evaluate the VR experience and explore the role of medical libraries in advancing presurgical case planning. Semistructured interview data were analyzed using content analysis with feedback categorization. Results: Participants were residents, fellows, and surgeons from the University of Washington with a mean age of 41.5 (SD 11.67) years. A total of 8 surgeons participated in the usability study, 3 of whom had prior exposure to VR. Users found Medical Holodeck easier to use than Bosc. Mean adjusted NASA-TLX score for Medical Holodeck was 62.71 (SD 18.25) versus Bosc’s 40.87 (SD 13.90). Neither app passed the mean SUS score of 68 for an app to be considered usable, though Medical Holodeck (66.25 [SD 12.87]) scored a higher mean SUS than Bosc (37.19 [SD 22.41]). One user rated the Bosc usable, whereas 3 users rated Medical Holodeck usable. Conclusions: Interviews highlighted the importance of precise anatomical conceptualization in presurgical case planning and teaching, identifying it as the top reason for modifying a surgical procedure. The importance of standardized user interaction features such as labeling is justified. The study also sheds light on the new roles medical librarians can play in curating VR content and promoting interdisciplinary collaboration.

  • Mobile app for reporting medication errors anonymously (montage). Source: The Authors / Placeit; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Usability Testing of a Mobile App to Report Medication Errors Anonymously: Mixed-Methods Approach


    Background: Reporting of medication errors is one of the essential mechanisms to identify risky health care systems and practices that lead to medication errors. Unreported medication errors are a real issue; one of the identified causes is a burdensome medication error reporting system. An anonymous and user-friendly mobile app for reporting medication errors could be an alternative method of reporting medication error in busy health care settings. Objective: The objective of this paper is to report usability testing of the Medication Error Reporting App (MERA), a mobile app for reporting medication errors anonymously. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed involving 45 different testers (pharmacists, doctors, and nurses) from a large tertiary hospital in Malaysia. Quantitative data was retrieved using task performance and rating of MERA and qualitative data were retrieved through focus group discussions. Three sessions, with 15 testers each session, were conducted from January to March 2018. Results: The majority of testers were pharmacists (23/45, 51%), female (35/45, 78%), and the mean age was 36 (SD 9) years. A total of 135 complete reports were successfully submitted by the testers (three reports per tester) and 79.2% (107/135) of the reports were correct. There was significant improvement in mean System Usability Scale scores in each session of the development process (P<.001) and mean time to report medication errors using the app was not significantly different between each session (P=.70) with an overall mean time of 6.7 (SD 2.4) minutes. Testers found the app easy to use, but doctors and nurses were unfamiliar with terms used especially medication process at which error occurred and type of error. Although, testers agreed the app can be used in the future for reporting, they were apprehensive about security, validation, and abuse of feedback featured in the app. Conclusions: MERA can be used to report medication errors easily by various health care personnel and it has the capacity to provide feedback on reporting. However, education on medication error reporting should be provided to doctors and nurses in Malaysia and the security of the app needs to be established to boost reporting by this method.

  • Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: Astrid Torbjørnsen; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    The Service User Technology Acceptability Questionnaire: Psychometric Evaluation of the Norwegian Version


    Background: When developing a mobile health app, users’ perception of the technology should preferably be evaluated. However, few standardized and validated questionnaires measuring acceptability are available. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the Norwegian version of the Service User Technology Acceptability Questionnaire (SUTAQ). Methods: Persons with type 2 diabetes randomized to the intervention groups of the RENEWING HEALTH study used a diabetes diary app. At the one-year follow-up, participants in the intervention groups (n=75) completed the self-reported instrument SUTAQ to measure the acceptability of the equipment. We conducted confirmatory factor analysis for evaluating the fit of the original five-factor structure of the SUTAQ. Results: We confirmed only 2 of the original 5 factors of the SUTAQ, perceived benefit and care personnel concerns. Conclusions: The original five-factor structure of the SUTAQ was not confirmed in the Norwegian study, indicating that more research is needed to tailor the questionnaire to better reflect the Norwegian setting. However, a small sample size prevented us from drawing firm conclusions about the translated questionnaire.

  • Untitled. Source: Adobe Stock; Copyright: angellodeco; URL:; License: Licensed by the authors.

    An Optimization Program to Help Practices Assess Data Quality and Workflow With Their Electronic Medical Records: Observational Study


    Background: Electronic medical record (EMR) adoption among Canadian primary care physicians continues to grow. In Ontario, >80% of primary care providers now use EMRs. Adopting an EMR does not guarantee better practice management or patient care; however, EMR users must understand how to effectively use it before they can realize its full benefit. OntarioMD developed an EMR Practice Enhancement Program (EPEP) to overcome challenges of clinicians and staff in finding time to learn a new technology or workflow. EPEP deploys practice consultants to work with clinicians onsite to harness their EMR toward practice management and patient care goals. Objective: This paper aims to illustrate the application of the EPEP approach to address practice-level factors that impede or enhance the effective use of EMRs to support patient outcomes and population health. The secondary objective is to draw attention to the potential impact of this practice-level work to population health (system-level), as priority population health indicators are addressed by quality improvement work at the practice-level. Methods: EPEP’s team of practice consultants work with clinicians to identify gaps in their knowledge of EMR functionality, analyze workflow, review EMR data quality, and develop action plans with achievable tasks. Consultants establish baselines for data quality in key clinical indicators and EMR proficiency using OntarioMD-developed maturity assessment tools. We reassessed and compared postengagement, data quality, and maturity. Three examples illustrating the EPEP approach and results are presented to illuminate strengths, limitations, and implications for further analysis. In each example, a different consultant was responsible for engaging with the practice to conduct the EPEP method. No standard timeframe exists for an EPEP engagement, as requirements differ from practice to practice, and EPEP tailors its approach and timeframe according to the needs of the practice. Results: After presenting findings of the initial data quality review, workflow, and gap analysis to the practice, consultants worked with practices to develop action plans and begin implementing recommendations. Each practice had different objectives in engaging the EPEP; here, we compared improvements across measures that were common priorities among all 3—screening (colorectal, cervical, and breast), diabetes diagnosis, and documentation of the smoking status. Consultants collected postengagement data at intervals (approximately 6, 12, and 18 months) to assess the sustainability of the changes. The postengagement assessment showed data quality improvements across several measures, and new confidence in their data enabled practices to implement more advanced functions (such as toolbars) and targeted initiatives for subpopulations of patients. Conclusions: Applying on-site support to analyze gaps in EMR knowledge and use, identify efficiencies to improve workflow, and correct data quality issues can make dramatic improvements in a practice’s EMR proficiency, allowing practices to experience greater benefit from their EMR, and consequently, improve their patient care.

  • Source: Freepik; Copyright: peoplecreations; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + ShareAlike (CC-BY-SA).

    Innovating From Within: A Process Model for User-Centered Digital Development in Academic Medical Centers


    Background: Design thinking and human-centered design approaches have become increasingly common in health care literature, particularly in relation to health information technology (HIT), as a pathway toward the development of usable, diffusible tools and processes. There is a need in academic medical centers tasked with digital innovation for a comprehensive process model to guide development that incorporates current industry trends, including design thinking and lean and agile approaches to digital development. Objective: This study aims to describe the foundations and phases of our model for user-centered HIT development. Methods: Based on our experience, we established an integrated approach and rigorous process for HIT development that leverages design thinking and lean and agile strategies in a pragmatic way while preserving methodological integrity in support of academic research goals. Results: A four-phased pragmatic process model was developed for user-centered digital development in HIT. Conclusions: The model for user-centered HIT development that we developed is the culmination of diverse innovation projects and represents a multiphased, high-fidelity process for making more creative, flexible, efficient, and effective tools. This model is a critical step in building a rigorous approach to HIT design that incorporates a multidisciplinary, pragmatic perspective combined with academic research practices and state-of-the-art approaches to digital product development to meet the unique needs of health care.

  • Source: Pexels; Copyright: Pixabay; URL:; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Easier and Faster Is Not Always Better: Grounded Theory of the Impact of Large-Scale System Transformation on the Clinical Work of Emergency Medicine Nurses...


    Background: The effectiveness of Lean Thinking as a quality improvement method for health care has been contested due, in part, to our limited contextual understanding of how it affects the working conditions and clinical workflow of nurses and physicians. Although there are some initial indications, arising from prevalence surveys and interviews, that Lean may intensify work performed within medical environments, the evidence base still requires detailed descriptions of the changes that were actually introduced to individuals’ clinical workflow and how these changes impacted health care professionals. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore ways in which a Lean intervention may impact the clinical work of emergency medicine nurses and physicians. Methods: We used a realist grounded theory approach to explore the clinical work of nurses and physicians practicing in 2 emergency medicine departments from a single teaching hospital in Canada. The hospital has 1000 beds with 128,000 emergency department (ED) visits annually. In 2013, both sites began a large-scale, Lean-driven system transformation of their practice environments. In-person interviews were iteratively conducted with health care professionals from July to December 2017. Information from transcripts was coded into categories and compared with existing codes. With repeated review of transcripts and evolving coding, we organized categories into themes. Data collection continued to theoretical sufficiency. Results: A total of 15 emergency medicine nurses and 5 physicians were interviewed. Of these, 18 individuals had practiced for at least 10 years. Our grounded theory involved 3 themes: (1) organization of our clinical work, (2) pushed pace in the front cell, and (3) the toll this all takes on us. Although the intervention was supposed to make the EDs work easier, faster, and better, the participants in our study indicated that the changes made had the opposite impact. Nurses and physicians described ways in which the reconfigured EDs disrupted their established practice routines and resulted in the intensification of their work. Participants also identified indications of deskilling of nurses’ work and how the new push-forward model of patient care had detrimental impacts on their physical, cognitive, and emotional well-being. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe the impact of Lean health care on the working conditions and actual work of emergency medicine nurses and physicians. We theorize that rather than support health care professionals in their management of the complexities that characterize emergency medicine, the physical and process-based changes introduced by the Lean intervention acted to further complicate their working environment. We have illuminated some unintended consequences associated with accelerating patient flow on the clinical workflow and perceived well-being of health care professionals. We identify some areas for reconsideration by the departments and put forward ideas for future research.

  • Source: Unsplash; Copyright: rawpizel; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Bridging the Gap Between Academic Research and Pragmatic Needs in Usability: A Hybrid Approach to Usability Evaluation of Health Care Information Systems


    Background: Technology is increasingly embedded into the full spectrum of health care. This movement has benefited from the application of software development practices such as usability testing and agile development processes. These practices are frequently applied in both commercial or operational and academic settings. However, the relative importance placed on rapid iteration, validity, reproducibility, generalizability, and efficiency differs between the 2 settings and the needs and objectives of academic versus pragmatic usability evaluations. Objective: This paper explores how usability evaluation typically varies on key dimensions in pragmatic versus academic settings that impact the rapidity, validity, and reproducibility of findings and proposes a hybrid approach aimed at satisfying both pragmatic and academic objectives. Methods: We outline the characteristics of pragmatic versus academically oriented usability testing in health care, describe the tensions and gaps resulting from differing contexts and goals, and present a model of this hybrid process along with 2 case studies of digital development projects in which we demonstrate this integrated approach to usability evaluation. Results: The case studies presented illustrate design choices characteristic of our hybrid approach to usability evaluation. Conclusions: Designed to leverage the strengths of both pragmatically and academically focused usability studies, a hybrid approach allows new development projects to efficiently iterate and optimize from usability data as well as preserves the ability of these projects to produce deeper insights via thorough qualitative analysis to inform further tool development and usability research by way of academically focused dissemination.

  • ReX device. Source: The Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Use of a Digital Medication Management System for Effective Assessment and Enhancement of Patient Adherence to Therapy (ReX): Feasibility Study


    Background: Medication nonadherence is a major problem in health care, imposing poor clinical outcomes and a heavy financial burden on all stakeholders. Current methods of medication adherence assessment are severely limited: they are applied only periodically, do not relate to actual pill intake, and suffer from patient bias due to errors, misunderstanding, or intentional nonadherence. ReX is an innovative medication management system designed to address poor patient adherence and enhance patient engagement with their therapy. ReX controls and tracks pills from the point of packaging right through to the patient’s mouth. ReX generates robust, real-time adherence data. The system enables patients to report outcomes, complete surveys, and receive messages and instructions. ReX includes a reusable drug dispensing unit, disposable cassette containing pills, and a cloud-based data portal. Objective: We aimed to evaluate ReX feasibility by human factor studies including evaluation of ReX safety; ReX acceptance and usability; and ReX efficacy of providing pills according to a preprogrammed dose regimen, managing reminders and adherence data, and enhancing the adherence rate compared with the standard of care. Methods: The ReX system was evaluated in 2 human factor, nonclinical feasibility studies. Human subjects used ReX for the administration of pill-shaped Tic Tac sweets. The initial study evaluated ReX use and pill intake administration; second was a self-controlled, 4-day home-use study. All subjects took pills at home, according to a preprogrammed dose regimen, for 4 days each via the device (ReX test) or from standard packaging (control test). The adherence rate (percent of pills taken) was measured by the study subject’s report, remaining pills count, and ReX records (in the ReX test). ReX safety and usability were evaluated by a questionnaire filled out by the subject. Results: The initial feasibility study evaluated usability and acceptance of the ReX novel approach to pill dispensing. All subjects successfully managed 2 pill intakes. The ReX device was rated as easy to use by 81% (48/59) of subjects. The 4-day home-use study evaluated the safety, efficacy, and usability of the ReX system. No adverse event occurred; no pill overdose or pill malformation was reported. The overall adherence rate in the ReX test was 97.6% compared with 76.3% in the control test (P<.001). Real-time, personalized reminders provided in the event of a delay in pill intake contributed to 18.0% of doses taken during the ReX test. The ReX system was found easy to use by 87% (35/40) of subjects; 90% (36/40) felt comfortable using it for their medication. Conclusions: ReX’s novel “tracking to the mouth” technology was found usable and accepted by subjects. The assessment of adherence rates was reliable; adherence of subjects to the dose regimen was significantly enhanced when using ReX compared with the standard of care.

  • eHealth as support for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease–related self-management strategies. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: Sara Lundell; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Usefulness and Relevance of an eHealth Tool in Supporting the Self-Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Explorative Qualitative Study of a...


    Background: New strategies are urgently needed to support self-management for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care. The use of electronic health (eHealth) solutions is promising. However, there is a lack of knowledge about how such eHealth tools should be designed in order to be perceived as relevant and useful and meet the needs and expectations of the health professionals as well as people with COPD and their relatives. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the aspects of an eHealth tool design and content that make it relevant and useful for supporting COPD-related self-management strategies from the perspective of health care professionals, people with COPD and their relatives, and external researchers. Methods: Data were collected during the development of an eHealth tool. A cocreation process was carried out with participants from two primary care units in northern Sweden and external researchers. Individual interviews were performed with health care professionals (n=13) as well as people with COPD (n=6) and their relatives (n=2), and focus group discussions (n=9) were held with all groups of participants. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The overarching theme, reinforcing existing support structures, reflects participant views that the eHealth tool needs to be directly applicable and create a sense of commitment in users. Moreover, participants felt that the tool needs to fit with existing routines and contexts and preferably should not challenge existing hierarchies between health care professionals and people with COPD. Important content for health care professionals and people with COPD included knowledge about self-management strategies. Videos were regarded as the most effective method for communicating such knowledge. Conclusions: The cocreation in the development process enables participant perspectives and priorities to be built into the eHealth tool. This is assumed to contribute to a tool that is useful and relevant and, therefore, adopted into clinical practice and everyday life. Findings from this study can inform the development of eHealth tools for people with COPD in other contexts, as well as the development of eHealth tools for self-management support of other chronic diseases.

  • ICU monitoring. Source: Dreamstime; Copyright: Andrei Malov; URL:; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Alarm-Related Workload in Default and Modified Alarm Settings and the Relationship Between Alarm Workload, Alarm Response Rate, and Care Provider Experience:...


    Background: Delayed or no response to impending patient safety–related calls, poor care provider experience, low job satisfaction, and adverse events are all unwanted outcomes of alarm fatigue. Nurses often cite increases in alarm-related workload as a reason for alarm fatigue, which is a major contributor to the aforementioned unwanted outcomes. Increased workload affects both the care provider and the patient. No studies to date have evaluated the workload while caring for patients and managing alarms simultaneously and related it to the primary measures of alarm fatigue—alarm response rate and care provider experience. Many studies have assessed the effect of modifying the default alarm setting; however, studies on the perceived workload under different alarm settings are limited. Objective: This study aimed to assess nurses’ or assistants’ perceived workload index of providing care under different clinical alarm settings and establish the relationship between perceived workload, alarm response rate, and care provider experience. Methods: In a clinical simulator, 30 participants responded to alarms that occurred on a physiological monitor under 2 conditions (default and modified) for a given clinical condition. Participants completed a National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index questionnaire and rated the demand experienced on a 20-point visual analog scale with low and high ratings. A correlational analysis was performed to assess the relationships between the perceived workload score, alarm response rate, and care provider experience. Results: Participants experienced lower workloads when the clinical alarm threshold limits were modified according to patients’ clinical conditions. The workload index was higher for the default alarm setting (57.60 [SD 2.59]) than for the modified alarm setting (52.39 [SD 2.29]), with a statistically significant difference of 5.21 (95% CI 3.38-7.04), t28=5.838, P<.05. Significant correlations were found between the workload index and alarm response rate. There was a strong negative correlation between alarm response rate and perceived workload, ρ28=−.54, P<.001 with workload explaining 29% of the variation in alarm response rate. There was a moderate negative correlation between the experience reported during patient care and the perceived workload, ρ28=−.49, P<.05. Conclusions: The perceived workload index was comparatively lower with alarm settings modified for individual patient care than in an unmodified default clinical alarm setting. These findings demonstrate that the modification of clinical alarm limits positively affects the number of alarms accurately addressed, care providers’ experience, and overall satisfaction. The findings support the removal of nonessential alarms based on patient conditions, which can help care providers address the remaining alarms accurately and provide better patient care.

  • User with portal visualization. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: Katherine Kim; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Data Visualizations to Support Health Practitioners’ Provision of Personalized Care for Patients With Cancer and Multiple Chronic Conditions: User-Centered...


    Background: There exists a challenge of understanding and integrating various types of data collected to support the health of individuals with multiple chronic conditions engaging in cancer care. Data visualization has the potential to address this challenge and support personalized cancer care. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the health care practitioners’ perceptions of and feedback regarding visualizations developed to support the care of individuals with multiple chronic conditions engaging in cancer care. Methods: Medical doctors (n=4) and registered nurses (n=4) providing cancer care at an academic medical center in the western United States provided feedback on visualization mock-ups. Mock-up designs were guided by current health informatics and visualization literature and the Munzner Nested Model for Visualization Design. User-centered design methods, a mock patient persona, and a scenario were used to elicit insights from participants. Directed content analysis was used to identify themes from session transcripts. Means and SDs were calculated for health care practitioners’ rankings of overview visualizations. Results: Themes identified were data elements, supportive elements, confusing elements, interpretation, and use of visualization. Overall, participants found the visualizations useful and with the potential to provide personalized care. Use of color, reference lines, and familiar visual presentations (calendars, line graphs) were noted as helpful in interpreting data. Conclusions: Visualizations guided by a framework and literature can support health care practitioners’ understanding of data for individuals with multiple chronic conditions engaged in cancer care. This understanding has the potential to support the provision of personalized care.

  • Doctor viewing persuasive summary screen. Source: The Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Applying Persuasive Design Techniques to Influence Data-Entry Behaviors in Primary Care: Repeated Measures Evaluation Using Statistical Process Control


    Background: Persuasive design is an approach that seeks to change the behaviors of users. In primary care, clinician behaviors and attitudes are important precursors to structured data entry, and there is an impact on overall data quality. We hypothesized that persuasive design changes data-entry behaviors in clinicians and thus improves data quality. Objective: The objective of this study was to use persuasive design principles to change clinician data-entry behaviors in a primary care environment and to increase data quality of data held in a family health team’s reporting system. Methods: We used the persuasive systems design framework to describe the persuasion context. Afterward, we designed and implemented new features into a summary screen that leveraged several persuasive design principles. We tested the influence of the new features by measuring its impact on 3 data quality measures (same-day entry, record completeness, and data validity). We also measured the impacts of the new features with a paired pre-post t test and generated XmR charts to contextualize the results. Survey responses were also collected from users. Results: A total of 53 users used the updated system that incorporated the new features over the course of 8 weeks. Based on a pre-post analysis, the new summary screen successfully encouraged users to enter more of their data on the same day as their encounter. On average, the percentage of same-day entries rose by 10.3% for each user (P<.001). During the first month of the postimplementation period, users compensated by sacrificing aspects of data completeness before returning to normal in the second month. Improvements to record validity were marginal over the study period (P=.05). Statistical process control techniques allowed us to study the XmR charts to contextualize our results and understand trends throughout the study period. Conclusions: By conducting a detailed systems analysis and introducing new persuasive design elements into a data-entry system, we demonstrated that it was possible to change data-entry behavior and influence data quality in a reporting system. The results show that using persuasive design concepts may be effective in influencing data-entry behaviors in clinicians. There may be opportunities to continue improving this approach, and further work is required to perfect and test additional designs. Persuasive design is a viable approach to encourage clinician user change and could support better data capture in the field of medical informatics.

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