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Journal Description

JMIR Human Factors (JHF, ISSN 2292-9495; Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Andre Kushniruk) is a multidisciplinary journal with contributions from design experts, medical researchers, engineers, and social scientists.

JMIR Human Factors focuses on understanding how the behaviour and thinking of humans can influence and shape the design of health care interventions and technologies, and how the design can be evaluated and improved to make health care interventions and technologies usable, safe, and effective. This includes usability studies and heuristic evaluations, studies concerning ergonomics and error prevention, design studies for medical devices and healthcare systems/workflows, enhancing teamwork through Human Factors based teamwork training, measuring non-technical skills in staff like leadership, communication, situational awareness and teamwork, and healthcare policies and procedures to reduce errors and increase safety.
JHF aspires to lead health care towards a culture of "usability by design", as well as to a culture of testing, error-prevention and safety, by promoting and publishing reports rigorously evaluating the usability and human factors aspects in health care, as well as encouraging the development and debate on new methods in this emerging field. 

All articles are professionally copyedited and typeset, ready for indexing in PubMed/PubMed Central. Possible contributions include usability studies and heuristic evaluations, studies concerning ergonomics and error prevention, design studies for medical devices and healthcare systems/workflows, enhancing teamwork through Human Factors based teamwork training, measuring non-technical skills in staff like leadership, communication, situational awareness and teamwork, and healthcare policies and procedures to reduce errors and increase safety. Reviews, viewpoint papers and tutorials are as welcome as original research.

Recent Articles:

  • Source: Image created by the Authors / Pixabay; Copyright: The Authors / Free-Photos; URL:; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Novel Interface Designs for Patient Monitoring Applications in Critical Care Medicine: Human Factors Review


    Background: The patient monitor (PM) is one of the most commonly used medical devices in hospitals worldwide. PMs are used to monitor patients’ vital signs in a wide variety of patient care settings, especially in critical care settings, such as intensive care units. An interesting observation is that the design of PMs has not significantly changed over the past 2 decades, with the layout and structure of PMs more or less unchanged, with incremental changes in design being made rather than transformational changes. Thus, we believe it well-timed to review the design of novel PM interfaces, with particular reference to usability and human factors. Objective: This paper aims to review innovations in PM design proposed by researchers and explore how clinicians responded to these design changes. Methods: A literature search of relevant databases, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, identified 16 related studies. A detailed description of the interface design and an analysis of each novel PM were carried out, including a detailed analysis of the structure of the different user interfaces, to inform future PM design. The test methodologies used to evaluate the different designs are also presented. Results: Most of the studies included in this review identified some level of improvement in the clinician’s performance when using a novel display in comparison with the traditional PM. For instance, from the 16 reviewed studies, 12 studies identified an improvement in the detection and response times, and 10 studies identified an improvement in the accuracy or treatment efficiency. This indicates that novel displays have the potential to improve the clinical performance of nurses and doctors. However, the outcomes of some of these studies are weakened because of methodological deficiencies. These deficiencies are discussed in detail in this study. Conclusions: More careful study design is warranted to investigate the user experience and usability of future novel PMs for real time vital sign monitoring, to establish whether or not they could be used successfully in critical care. A series of recommendations on how future novel PM designs and evaluations can be enhanced are provided.

  • Source: MAMA Research Team; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Licensed by the authors.

    The Mobile Alliance for Maternal Action Text Message–Based mHealth Intervention for Maternal Care in South Africa: Qualitative User Study


    Background: Using mobile technology to support health care (mobile health [mHealth]) has been shown to improve health outcomes across a multitude of health specialties and across the world. Exploring mHealth user experiences can aid in understanding how and why an intervention was successful. The Mobile Alliance for Maternal Action (MAMA) was a free maternal mHealth SMS text messaging service that was offered to pregnant women in Johannesburg, South Africa, with the goal of improving maternal, fetal, and infant health outcomes. We conducted focus group discussions with MAMA users to learn about their experiences with the program. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to gather opinions of participants of the MAMA maternal mHealth service regarding health care atmosphere, intervention use, and intervention feedback. Methods: Prenatal and postnatal women (N=15) from public antenatal and postnatal care sites in central Johannesburg who were receiving free maternal health text messages (MAMA) participated in 3 focus group discussions. Predefined discussion topics included personal background, health care system experiences, MAMA program recruitment, acceptability, participant experiences, and feedback. Results: The feedback regarding experiences with the health system were comprised of a few reports of positive experiences and many more reports of negative experiences such as long wait times, understaffed facilities, and poor service. Overall acceptability for the maternal text message intervention was high. Participants reflected that the messages were timely, written clearly, and felt supportive. Participants also reported sharing messages with friends and family. Conclusions: These findings suggest that maternal mHealth interventions delivered through text messages can provide timely, relevant, useful, and supportive information to pregnant women and new mothers especially in settings where there may be mistrust of the health care system.

  • HoloLens use in cardiology. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: Alexander D Hilt; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Perspectives of Patients and Professionals on Information and Education After Myocardial Infarction With Insight for Mixed Reality Implementation:...


    Background: Patient education is crucial in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Novel technologies such as augmented reality or mixed reality expand the possibilities for providing visual support in this process. Mixed reality creates interactive digital three-dimensional (3D) projections overlaying virtual objects on the real-world environment. While augmented reality only overlays objects, mixed reality not just overlays but anchors virtual objects to the real world. However, research on this technology in the patient domain is scarce. Objective: The aim of this study was to understand how patients perceive information provided after myocardial infarction and examine if mixed reality can be supportive in this process. Methods: In total, 12 patients that experienced myocardial infarction and 6 health care professionals were enrolled in the study. Clinical, demographic, and qualitative data were obtained through semistructured interviews, with a main focus on patient experiences within the hospital and the knowledge they gained about their disease. These data were then used to map a susceptible timeframe to identify how mixed reality can contribute to patient information and education. Results: Knowledge transfer after myocardial infarction was perceived by patients as too extensive, not personal, and inconsistent. Notably, knowledge on anatomy and medication was minimal and was not recognized as crucial by patients, whereas professionals stated the opposite. Patient journey analysis indicated the following four critical phases of knowledge transfer: at hospital discharge, at the first outpatient visit, during rehabilitation, and during all follow-up outpatient visits. Important patient goals were understanding the event in relation to daily life and its implications on resuming daily life. During follow-up, understanding physical limitations and coping with the condition and medication side effects in daily life emerged as the most important patient goals. The professionals’ goals were to improve recovery, enhance medication adherence, and offer coping support. Conclusions: There is a remarkable difference between patients’ and professionals’ goals regarding information and education after myocardial infarction. Mixed reality may be a practical tool to unite perspectives of patients and professionals on the disease in a more even manner, and thus optimize knowledge transfer after myocardial infarction. Improving medication knowledge seems to be a feasible target for mixed reality. However, further research is needed to create durable methods for education on medication through mixed reality interventions.

  • An anesthetist's view of manually recording a simulated patient's vital signs. Source: Image created by the authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Comparison of the Effects of Automated and Manual Record Keeping on Anesthetists’ Monitoring Performance: Randomized Controlled Simulation Study


    Background: Anesthesia information management systems (AIMSs) automatically import real-time vital signs from physiological monitors to anesthetic records, replacing part of anesthetists’ traditional manual record keeping. However, only a handful of studies have examined the effects of AIMSs on anesthetists’ monitoring performance. Objective: This study aimed to compare the effects of AIMS use and manual record keeping on anesthetists’ monitoring performance, using a full-scale high-fidelity simulation. Methods: This simulation study was a randomized controlled trial with a parallel group design that compared the effects of two record-keeping methods (AIMS vs manual) on anesthetists’ monitoring performance. Twenty anesthetists at a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong were randomly assigned to either the AIMS or manual condition, and they participated in a 45-minute scenario in a high-fidelity simulation environment. Participants took over a case involving general anesthesia for below-knee amputation surgery and performed record keeping. The three primary outcomes were participants’ (1) vigilance detection accuracy (%), (2) situation awareness accuracy (%), and (3) subjective mental workload (0-100). Results: With regard to the primary outcomes, there was no significant difference in participants’ vigilance detection accuracy (AIMS, 56.7% vs manual, 56.7%; P=.50), and subjective mental workload was significantly lower in the AIMS condition than in the manual condition (AIMS, 34.2 vs manual, 46.7; P=.02). However, the result for situation awareness accuracy was inconclusive as the study did not have enough power to detect a difference between the two conditions. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that it is promising for AIMS use to become a mainstay of anesthesia record keeping. AIMSs are effective in reducing anesthetists’ workload and improving the quality of their anesthetic record keeping, without compromising vigilance.

  • Source: Wikimedia Commons; Copyright: Petr Novák; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + ShareAlike (CC-BY-SA).

    Value of Eye-Tracking Data for Classification of Information Processing–Intensive Handling Tasks: Quasi-Experimental Study on Cognition and User Interface...


    Background: In order to give a wide range of people the opportunity to ensure and support home care, one approach is to develop medical devices that are as user-friendly as possible. This allows nonexperts to use medical devices that were originally too complicated to use. For a user-centric development of such medical devices, it is essential to understand which user interface design best supports patients, caregivers, and health care professionals. Objective: Using the benefits of mobile eye tracking, this work aims to gain a deeper understanding of the challenges of user cognition. As a consequence, its goal is to identify the obstacles to the usability of the features of two different designs of a single medical device user interface. The medical device is a patient assistance device for home use in peritoneal dialysis therapy. Methods: A total of 16 participants, with a subset of seniors (8/16, mean age 73.7 years) and young adults (8/16, mean age 25.0 years), were recruited and participated in this study. The handling cycle consisted of seven main tasks. Data analysis started with the analysis of task effectiveness for searching for error-related tasks. Subsequently, the in-depth gaze data analysis focused on these identified critical tasks. In order to understand the challenges of user cognition in critical tasks, gaze data were analyzed with respect to individual user interface features of the medical device system. Therefore, it focused on the two dimensions of dwell time and fixation duration of the gaze. Results: In total, 97% of the handling steps for design 1 and 96% for design 2 were performed correctly, with the main challenges being task 1 insert, task 2 connect, and task 6 disconnect for both designs. In order to understand the two analyzed dimensions of the physiological measurements simultaneously, the authors propose a new graphical representation. It distinguishes four different patterns to compare the eye movements associated with the two designs. The patterns identified for the critical tasks are consistent with the results of the task performance. Conclusions: This study showed that mobile eye tracking provides insights into information processing in intensive handling tasks related to individual user interface features. The evaluation of each feature of the user interface promises an optimal design by combining the best found features. In this way, manufacturers are able to develop products that can be used by untrained people without prior knowledge. This would allow home care to be provided not only by highly qualified nurses and caregivers, but also by patients themselves, partners, children, or neighbors.

  • Feature image- Kid is looking at a phone. Source:; Copyright: Piqsels; URL:; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Usability of a Mobile App for Improving Literacy in Children With Hearing Impairment: Focus Group Study


    Background: Children with hearing loss, even those identified early and who use hearing aids or cochlear implants, may face challenges in developing spoken language and literacy. This can lead to academic, behavioral, and social difficulties. There are apps for healthy children to improve their spoken language and literacy and apps that focus on sign language proficiency for children with hearing loss, but these apps are limited for children with hearing loss. Therefore, we have developed an app called Hear Me Read, which uses enhanced digital stories as therapy tools for speech, language, and literacy for children with hearing loss. The platform has therapist and parent/child modes that allow (1) the selection of high-quality, illustrated digital stories by a speech-language pathologist, parent, or child; (2) the modification of digital stories for a multitude of speech and language targets; and (3) the assignment of stories by a therapist to facilitate individualized speech and language goals. In addition, Hear Me Read makes the caregiver a core partner in engagement through functionality, whereby the caregiver can record video and audio of themselves to be played back by the child. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the user experience of the Hear Me Read app through a focus group study with caregivers and their children. Methods: We recruited 16 participants (8 children with and without hearing loss and 8 caregivers) to participate in 1-hour focus groups. Caregivers and children interacted with the app and discussed their experiences through a semistructured group interview. We employed thematic analysis methods and analyzed the data. We used feedback from the focus group to improve the elements of the app for a larger clinical trial assessing the impact of the app on outcomes. Results: We identified three themes: default needs, specific needs, and family needs. Participants found the app to be esthetically pleasing and easy to use. The findings of this study helped us to identify usability attributes and to amend app functionalities to best fit user needs. Caregivers and children appreciated the enhancements, such as highlighting of parts of speech and caregiver reading of video playback, which were made possible by the digital format. Participants expressed that the app could be used to enhance family reading sessions and family interaction. Conclusions: The findings from this focus group study are promising for the use of educational apps designed specifically for those with hearing loss who are pursuing listening and spoken language as a communication outcome. Further investigation is needed with larger sample sizes to understand the clinical impact on relevant language and literacy outcomes in this population.

  • Source: Image created by the authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + ShareAlike (CC-BY-SA).

    Recommendations for Developing Support Tools With People Suffering From Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Co-Design and Pilot Testing of a Mobile Health...


    Background: Gaps exist between developers, commissioners, and end users in terms of the perceived desirability of different features and functionalities of mobile apps. Objective: The objective of this study was to co-design a prototype mobile app for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We present lessons learned and recommendations from working on a large project with various stakeholders to develop a mobile app for patients with COPD. Methods: We adopted a user-centered, participatory approach to app development. Following a series of focus groups and interviews to capture requirements, we developed a prototype app designed to enable daily symptom recording (experience sampling). The prototype was tested in a usability study applying the think aloud protocol with people with COPD. It was then released via the Android app store, and experience sampling data and event data were captured to gather further usability data. Results: A total of 5 people with COPD participated in the pilot study. Identified themes include familiarity with technology, appropriate levels for feeding back information, and usability issues such as manual dexterity. Moreover, 37 participants used the app over a 4-month period (median age 47 years). The symptoms most correlated to perceived well-being were tiredness (r=0.61; P<.001) and breathlessness (r=0.59; P<.001). Conclusions: Design implications for COPD apps include the need for clearly labeled features (rather than relying on colors or symbols that require experience using smartphones), providing weather information, and using the same terminology as health care professionals (rather than simply lay terms). Target users, researchers, and developers should be involved at every stage of app development, using an iterative approach to build a prototype app, which should then be tested in controlled settings as well as in the wild (ie, when deployed and used in real-world settings) over longer periods.

  • Patient receiving a push notification. Source: Image created by the authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Fair use/fair dealings.

    A Cyber-Physical System for Near Real-Time Monitoring of At-Home Orthopedic Rehabilitation and Mobile–Based Provider-Patient Communications to Improve...


    Background: Knee extensor muscle performance is reduced after lower extremity trauma and orthopedic surgical interventions. At-home use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may improve functional recovery, but adherence to at-home interventions is low. Greater benefits from NMES may be realized with closer monitoring of adherence to at-home prescriptions and more frequent patient-provider interactions. Objective: This study aimed to develop a cyber-physical system to monitor at-home adherence to NMES prescription and facilitate patient-provider communications to improve adherence in near real time. Methods: The RehabTracker cyber-physical system was developed to accomplish this goal and comprises four components: (1) hardware modifications to a commercially available NMES therapy device to monitor device use and provide Bluetooth functionality; (2) an iPhone Operating System–based mobile health (mHealth) app that enables patient-provider communications in near real time; (3) a clinician portal to allow oversight of patient adherence with device use; and (4) a back-end server to store data, enable adherence analysis, and send automated push notifications to the patient. These four elements were designed to be fully compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. The system underwent formative testing in a cohort of patients following anterior cruciate ligament rupture (n=7) to begin to assess face validity. Results: Compared with the NMES device software–tracked device use, the RehabTracker system recorded 83% (40/48) of the rehabilitation sessions, with 100% (32/32) of all sessions logged by the system in 4 out of 7 patients. In patients for whom tracking of automated push notifications was enabled, 100% (29/29) of the push notifications sent by the back-end server were received by the patient. Process, hardware, and software issues contributing to these inaccuracies are detailed. Conclusions: RehabTracker represents a promising mHealth app for tracking and improving adherence with at-home NMES rehabilitation programs and warrants further refinement and testing. Trial Registration:

  • Using a web-based tool to mitigate psychosocial problems in hand therapy (montage). Source: The Authors/Placeit; Copyright: The Authors/Placeit; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Development and Usability Testing of a Web-Based and Therapist-Assisted Coping Skills Program for Managing Psychosocial Problems in Individuals With Hand and...


    Background: Ineffective coping has been linked to prolonged pain, distress, anxiety, and depression after a hand and upper limb injury. Evidence shows that interventions based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) may be effective in improving treatment outcomes, but traditional psychological interventions are resource intensive and unrealistic in busy hand therapy practices. Developing web-based, evidence-based psychological interventions specifically for hand therapy may be feasible in clinical practice and at home with reduced training and travel costs. Hand Therapy Online Coping Skills (HOCOS) is a program developed to supplement traditional hand therapy with therapist-assisted coping skills training based on principles from CBT and the Technology Acceptance Model. Objective: This study aimed to describe the development and assess the usability of HOCOS to support hand therapists in the management of psychosocial problems. Methods: The ADDIE model (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) of system design was applied to create HOCOS. The usability testing of HOCOS involved a 2-stage process. In the first step, heuristic testing with information and communications technology (ICT) experts was completed using two sets of heuristics: Monkman heuristics and the Health Literacy Online (HLO) checklist. The second step involved user testing with hand therapists performing a series of online and face-to-face activities, completing 12 tasks on the website using the think-aloud protocol, completing the system usability scale (SUS) questionnaire, and a semistructured feedback interview in 2 iterative cycles. Descriptive statistics and content analyses were used to organize the data. Results: In total, 4 ICT experts and 12 therapists completed usability testing. The heuristic evaluation revealed 15 of 35 violations on the HLO checklist and 5 of 11 violations on the Monkman heuristics. Initially, hand therapists found 5 tasks to be difficult but were able to complete all 12 tasks after the second cycle of testing. The cognitive interview findings were organized into 6 themes: task performance, navigation, design esthetics, content, functionality and features, and desire for future use. Usability issues identified were addressed in two iterative cycles. There was good agreement on all items of the SUS. Overall, therapists found that HOCOS was a detailed and helpful learning resource for therapists and patients. Conclusions: We describe the development and usability testing of HOCOS; a new web-based psychosocial intervention for individuals with a hand and upper limb injuries. HOCOS targets psychosocial problems linked to prolonged pain and disability by increasing access to therapist-guided coping skills training. We actively involved target users in the development and usability evaluation of the website. The final website was modified to meet the needs and preferences of the participants.

  • Overview of ETT in the Angiosuite. Source: Image created by authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Teamwork and Safety Attitudes in Complex Aortic Surgery at a Dutch Hospital: Cross-Sectional Survey Study


    Background: Improving teamwork in surgery is a complex goal and difficult to achieve. Human factors questionnaires, such as the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ), can help us understand medical teamwork and may assist in achieving this goal. Objective: This paper aimed to assess local team and safety culture in a cardiovascular surgery setting to understand how purposeful teamwork improvements can be reached. Methods: Two cardiovascular surgical teams performing complex aortic treatments were assessed: an endovascular-treatment team (ETT) and an open-treatment team (OTT). Both teams answered an online version of the SAQ Dutch Edition (SAQ-NL) consisting of 30 questions related to six different domains of safety: teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, stress recognition, perceptions of management, and working conditions. In addition, one open-ended question was posed to gain more insight into the completed questionnaires. Results: The SAQ-NL was completed by all 23 ETT members and all 13 OTT members. Team composition was comparable for both teams: 57% and 62% males, respectively, and 48% and 54% physicians, respectively. All participants worked for 10 years or more in health care. SAQ-NL mean scores were comparable between both teams, with important differences found between the physicians and nonphysicians of the ETT. Nonphysicians were less positive about the safety climate, job satisfaction, and working climate domains than were the physicians (P<.05). Additional education on performed procedures, more conjoined team training, as well as a hybrid operating room were suggested by participants as important areas of improvement. Conclusions: Nonphysicians of a local team performing complex endovascular aortic aneurysm surgery perceived safety climate, job satisfaction, and working conditions less positively than did physicians from the same team. Open-ended questions suggested that this is related to a lack of adequate conjoined training, lack of adequate education, and lack of an adequate operating room. With added open-ended questions, the SAQ-NL appears to be an assessment tool that allows for developing strategies that are instrumental in improving quality of care.

  • Source: Pixabay; Copyright: Pexels; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Factors Influencing Motivation and Engagement in Mobile Health Among Patients With Sickle Cell Disease in Low-Prevalence, High-Income Countries: Qualitative...


    Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hematological genetic disease affecting over 25 million people worldwide. The main clinical manifestations of SCD, hemolytic anemia and vaso-occlusion, lead to chronic pain and organ damages. With recent advances in childhood care, high-income countries have seen SCD drift from a disease of early childhood mortality to a neglected chronic disease of adulthood. In particular, coordinated, preventive, and comprehensive care for adults with SCD is largely underresourced. Consequently, patients are left to self-manage. Mobile health (mHealth) apps for chronic disease self-management are now flooding app stores. However, evidence remains unclear about their effectiveness, and the literature indicates low user engagement and poor adoption rates. Finally, few apps have been developed for people with SCD and none encompasses their numerous and complex self-care management needs. Objective: This study aimed to identify factors that may influence the long-term engagement and user adoption of mHealth among the particularly isolated community of adult patients with SCD living in low-prevalence, high-income countries. Methods: Semistructured interviews were conducted. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Analysis was informed by the Braun and Clarke framework and mapped to the COM-B model (capability, opportunity, motivation, and behavior). Results were classified into high-level functional requirements (FRs) and nonfunctional requirements (NFRs) to guide the development of future mHealth interventions. Results: Overall, 6 males and 4 females were interviewed (aged between 21 and 55 years). Thirty FRs and 31 NFRs were extracted from the analysis. Most participants (8/10) were concerned about increasing their physical capabilities being able to stop pain symptoms quickly. Regarding the psychological capability aspects, all interviewees desired to receive trustworthy feedback on their self-care management practices. About their physical opportunities, most (7/10) expressed a strong desire to receive alerts when they would reach their own physiological limitations (ie, during physical activity). Concerning social opportunity, most (9/10) reported wanting to learn about the self-care practices of other patients. Relating to motivational aspects, many interviewees (6/10) stressed their need to learn how to avoid the symptoms and live as normal a life as possible. Finally, NFRs included inconspicuousness and customizability of user experience, automatic data collection, data shareability, and data privacy. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that motivation and engagement with mHealth technologies among the studied population could be increased by providing features that clearly benefit them. Self-management support and self-care decision aid are patients’ major demands. As the complexity of SCD self-management requires a high cognitive load, pervasive health technologies such as wearable sensors, implantable devices, or inconspicuous conversational user interfaces should be explored to ease it. Some of the required technologies already exist but must be integrated, bundled, adapted, or improved to meet the specific needs of people with SCD.

  • Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Influencing Pain Inferences Using Random Numerical Anchoring: Randomized Controlled Trial


    Background: Numerical anchoring occurs when exposure to a numeric quantity influences a person’s subsequent judgment involving other quantities. This could be applicable to the evaluation of pain, where exposure to an unrelated number before the evaluation of pain could influence pain ratings. Objective: This study aimed to determine whether exposure to a random numeric anchor influences subsequent pain intensity ratings of a hypothetical patient. Methods: In this study, 385 participants read a vignette describing a patient with chronic pain before being randomly assigned to one of four groups. Groups 1 and 2 spun an 11-wedge number wheel (0-10), which was, unbeknown to the participants, programmed to stop on a high number (8) or a low number (2), respectively. Group 3 spun a similar letter wheel (A-K), which was programmed to stop on either the letter C or I (control 1). Group 4 did not spin a wheel (control 2). Participants were then asked to rate the patient’s pain intensity using a 0 to 10 numeric rating scale. Results: The high-number group rated the patient’s pain (median 8, IQR 2) significantly higher than the letter wheel control (median 7, IQR 2; P=.02) and the low-number group (median 6, IQR 2; P<.001). The low-number group rated the pain significantly lower than controls 1 and 2 (median 7, IQR 2; both P=.045). Conclusions: Pain ratings were influenced by prior exposure to a random number with no relevant information about the patient’s pain, indicating anchoring had occurred. However, contrary to the traditional definition of anchoring where anchoring occurs even when participants are unaware of the anchor’s influence, in this study, the anchoring effect was seen only in participants who believed that the anchor had influenced them. This suggests that anchoring effects could potentially occur among health care providers tasked with evaluating a patient’s pain and should be evaluated further.

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  • Impact of Globalisation on Pandemics: A comparative study on SARS and Covid-19

    Date Submitted: Jun 26, 2020

    Open Peer Review Period: Jun 26, 2020 - Jul 10, 2020

    Background: Since November 2019, Covid - 19 has spread across the globe costing people their lives and countries their economic stability. The world has become more interconnected over the past few de...

    Background: Since November 2019, Covid - 19 has spread across the globe costing people their lives and countries their economic stability. The world has become more interconnected over the past few decades owing to globalisation and such pandemics as the Covid -19 are cons of that. This paper attempts to gain deeper understanding into the correlation between globalisation and pandemics. It is a descriptive analysis on how one of the factors that was responsible for the spread of this virus on a global scale is globalisation. Objective: - To understand the close relationship that globalisation and pandemics share. - To understand the scale of the spread of viruses on a global scale though a comparison between SARS and Covid -19. - To understand the sale of globalisation present during SARS and Covid - 19. Methods: A descriptive qualitative comparative analysis was used throughout this research. Results: Globalisation does play a significant role in the spread of pandemics on a global level. Conclusions: - SARS and Covid - 19 were varied in terms of severity and spread. - The scale of globalisation was different during the time of SARS and Covid - 19. - Globalisation can be the reason for the faster spread in Pandemics.